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Angiopteris Evecta Classification Essay

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Angiopteris evecta classification essay

Marattiaceae — Angiopteris evecta Systematik Reich: Pflanzen (Plantae) Abteilung: Gefäßpflanzen … Deutsch Wikipedia

Marattiaceae — Marattiales Ordre des Marattiales Famille des Marattiaceae … Wikipédia en Français

Marattiaceae —. Maratiáceas Clasificación científica … Wikipedia Español

Marattiaceae — Marattiopsida Mule s foot fern (Angiopteris evecta) Scientific classification Kingdom … Wikipedia

Marattiaceae — ▪ fern family the giant fern family, the only family of the fern order Marattiales. The family contains four genera and some 150 modern species of large tropical and subtropical ferns with stout, erect stems. The leaves (fronds) may be very… … Universalium

Marattiaceae — noun constituting the order Marattiales: chiefly tropical eusporangiate ferns with gigantic fronds • Syn: ↑family Marattiaceae • Hypernyms: ↑fern family • Member Holonyms: ↑Marattiales, ↑order Marattiales • … Useful english dictionary

family Marattiaceae — noun constituting the order Marattiales: chiefly tropical eusporangiate ferns with gigantic fronds • Syn: ↑Marattiaceae • Hypernyms: ↑fern family • Member Holonyms: ↑Marattiales, ↑order Marattiales • Mem … Useful english dictionary

Marattiales — Marattiaceae Angiopteris evecta Systematik Reich: Pflanzen (Plantae) Unterreich … Deutsch Wikipedia

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Angiopteris: definition of angiopteris and synonyms of angiopteris (English)

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definitions - angiopteris

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1. highly variable species of very large primitive ferns of the Pacific tropical areas with high rainfall

definition (more) synonyms - angiopteris

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analogical dictionary Angiopteris From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Angiopteris is a genus of huge evergreen ferns from the Marattiaceae family, found in the tropical Pacific. They feature a large, erect, woody rhizome with a wide base supported by thick roots. The fronds are deltoid, pinnate, 5–8 metres (16–26 ft) long, with spreading leaflets.

The basal chromosome number for this genus is 2n=80. The type species is Angiopteris evecta .


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  • Ellison, Don (1999) Cultivated Plants of the World. London: New Holland (1st ed. Brisbane: Flora Publications International, 1995)
  • Botanica Sistematica

Angiopteris evecta

Angiopteris evecta

Angiopteris evecta is the type species of the genus Angiopteris . It was originally described as Polypodium evectum by Georg Forster in 1786, [3] before being reclassified and given its current binomial name in 1796 by Georg Franz Hoffmann. [4] The species name is the Latin adjective evectus "swollen" or "inflated", [5] probably a reference to its huge, bulbous pulvini. Common names include giant fern, king fern, oriental vessel fern, and mule's foot fern. In the Malay speaking nations ( Indonesia. Malaysia. Singapore. Brunei and Timor Leste ) it is called "Paku Gajah" (Elephant Fern).

The huge mature fronds measure up to 9 metres (29.5 ft) long. These largest ones are apparently found in Queensland where the lamina or blade can be up to 23 feet (7 meters) in length with the petiole or stalk being an additional 6' 6" (2 meters) long. [6] 29' 6" (9 meter) fronds have also been reported for the variety A. e. teysmanniana in Java. The succulent petioles, again in Queensland, can be up to four in (10 cm) thick, [7] and in the variety A e. microura of the Solomon Islands the petiole can be up to 8' 9" (2.7 meters) in length, [8] joined to the trunk or caudex by a pulvinus which can be up to 8 in (20 cm) thick [9] that serves to raise and lower the frond in response to weather conditions. This is the largest pulvinus of any known plant. At the base of each frond, surrounding the pulvinus like two catcher's mits, is a pair of fleshy stipules. A plant of the variety A. e palmiformis, native to the Philippines but growing at the Lyon Arboretum, Oahu, Hawai'i in June 1987 had stipules up to 9.25 inches (23.5 cm) long by 5.75 inches (14.6 cm) wide. [10] These are the largest stipules of any known plant. The fronds originate from a large thick rootstock, or caudex typically up to 150 cm (60 in) high, but occasionally as much as ten feet (3 meters) in height. [11] and up to 3.25 feet (one meter) [12] [13] or perhaps even 6' 7" (2 meters) [14] in thickness. An individual with 29' 6" (9 meter) fronds emerging from a caudex 18 inches (45 cm) thick could potentially have a crown spread of 61 feet (18.6 meters), the greatest of any tree fern.

Angiopteris evecta can be grown in well-drained moist sites in the garden with some shade. It is very difficult to propagate by spores but the stipules from the frond base can be removed and will form a new plant in around a year in a medium of sand and peat. [5]

References [ edit ]
  1. ^ "Angiopteris evecta ". Global Invasive Species.  
  2. ^ "Angiopteris evecta ". PlantNET - NSW Flora Online. Retrieved 2010-07-12.  
  3. ^ "Polypodium evectum G.Forst.". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.  
  4. ^ "Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst.) Hoffm.". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.  
  5. ^ ab Elliot, Rodger W.; Jones, David L.; Blake, Trevor (1985). Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants Suitable for Cultivation: Vol. 2. Port Melbourne: Lothian Press. p. 195. ISBN  0-85091-143-5.  
  6. ^ S.B. Andrews, FERNS OF QUEENSLAND, (Brisbane: Queensland Dept. of Primary Industries,1990) p. 16.
  7. ^ Stanley and Kay Breeden, TROPICAL QUEENSLAND (Sydney: Wm. Collins, Ltd, 1970) photo and caption p. 94.
  8. ^ E.B. Copeland, "Solomon Island Ferns", PHILIPPINE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Vol. 60 #2 (June 1936) p. 101.
  9. ^ William A. Setchell, "American Samoa"(Washington D.C. Carnegie Institute pub #341 (June 1924)) p. 121.
  10. ^ Measured by this writer June 26, 1987 at Lyon Arboretum, Upper Manoa Valley, Oahu, Hawai'i
  11. ^ Mark F. Large and John E. Braggins, TREE FERNS (Portland: Timber Press, 2004)
  12. ^ D.L. Jones and S.C. Clemsha, AUSTRALIAN FERNS AND FERN ALLIES (Sydney: A.H. & A.W. Reed Pty. Ltd. 1981) p. 76.
  13. ^ Prof. Douglas H. Campbell, THE STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MOSSES AND FERNS (London: MacMillan and Co. 1895) p. 254.
  14. ^ . KING FERN ! at http://rainforest-australia.com/King%20fern.htm

Vascular Anatomy of Angiopteris evecta on JSTOR

Vascular Anatomy of Angiopteris evecta

Coverage: 1876-1991 (Vol. 2, No. 1 - Vol. 152, No. 4)

The "moving wall" represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
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Subjects: Science & Mathematics, Botany & Plant Sciences, Biological Sciences, Environmental Science

Collections: Biological Sciences Collection, Life Sciences Collection, Corporate & For-Profit Access Initiative Collection, Ecology & Botany I Collection

1. The general internal structure of the stem of Angiopteris evecta consists of two main regions, the cortical and central vascular. The relatively thick cortex is traversed by leaf traces and roots. The central region consists of a vascular strand which appears crescent-shaped in cross-section and is imbedded in a central parenchyma tissue. This strand gives off root steles and leaf traces. In addition, commissural and medullary strands appear in the central region. 2. The leaf traces are given off from one edge of the central strand, and this contribution is always from the same edge in the same plant. On about the same level that the leaf trace leaves the central strand a root is attached on the outer side of the other edge. The contribution thus made to the leaf traces is made good on the opposite edge in two ways, by an increase in the vascular tissue on the edge itself, and by the addition of commissural strands. 3. The commissural strand originates from the free edge of the leaf trace after the latter is freed from the central strand, and passes to the opposite edge of the central strand and fuses with it. 4. By a continual loss of tissue from one edge and an addition on the other the central strand assumes a spiral condition. This condition is due to the spiral succession of leaves. 5. In the older stages a medullary strand appears on the inner side of the central strand opposite the upper level of a root junction. This crosses the central parenchyma tissue and fuses with the commissural strand before the latter has fused with the central strand. After fusion has taken place, the medullary strand passes upward on the inner side of the central strand, fused to the latter but retaining its identity, until the root junction has been cleared, when it frees itself and repeats its course across the central parenchyma. 6. Each leaf trace is definitely related to one root. The root which appears almost opposite a leaf trace corresponds to the next leaf above. In the early stages each leaf trace appears directly above its corresponding root; but in the later stages the leaf trace is displaced to the right or left, as the case may be, of its corresponding root, due to the spiral condition of the central strand. 7. The leaf traces at first are single, but later bifurcate in the stipular region, but anastomose beyond. The point of forking moves closer and closer to the central strand. Further forking and anastomosing of the leaf trace take place in the more advanced stages. 8. One strand from each side of the leaf trace goes to the lobes of the stipule. Branches from this strand supply the stipular lobes with vascular tissue. 9. All the stipular strands end blindly except the lowest or main strand, which is terminated by a procambial strand originating from a group of meristematic cells on the inner side of the edge of the stipule. This group of cells probably helps to build up the fleshy stipule. 10. The absence of cauline procambium and the definite relation between roots and leaves suggest that the vascular tissue of the central region is a sympodium of leaf traces, and most if not all of the central strand is of foliar origin.

Notes and References

This item contains 13 references.

BREBNER, G. On the anatomy of Danaea and other Marattiaceae. Ann. Botany 16:517-552. pIs. 22, 23. 1902.

CAMPBELL, D. H. The embryo and young sporophyte of Angiopteris and Kaulfussia. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 3:69-82. 1910.

—, The eusporagiate ferns. Carnegie Publ. 140. 1911.

Angiopteris lygodiifolia Marattiaceae Mules Foot Fern

Angiopteris lygodiifolia Rosenst.
  • Accession # 199600011
  • Source: CSU - Sacramento
  • Accession Date: 08-13-1996
  • Bench: 3103 - FERN: Misc Ferns
  • Qty: 2 confirmed on 02-22-2017
Classification: References (internal): References (external):
  1. The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Last accessed on Wednesday, February 22, 2017.
  2. Angiopteris lygodiifolia at Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Last accessed on Wednesday, February 22, 2017.

data regenerated on Wed, 22 Feb 2017 13:43:01 -0500

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Current Accessions in the Marattiaceae
  • Angiopteris lygodiifolia
W/C = Wild Collected
- indicates flowering in past 10 days
- images available for this accession