Homework for you

Two By Four Basics Of Critical Thinking

Rating: 4.0/5.0 (41 Votes)

Category: Critical thinking

Description

The Basics of Critical Thinking

The Basics of Critical Thinking

Michael Baker The Critical Thinking Co.™ 01 March 2016

While some critical thinking books for younger students focus on particular subsets of skills for critical thinking, The Basics of Critical Thinking takes a more practical and more comprehensive approach. It teaches students in grades four through nine how to find and evaluate evidence to help them arrive at accurate conclusions. In many of the lessons, students will immediately grasp the applications and the importance of sorting through possibilities.

Lessons are presented in 20 sections, but these vary in length. Some sections are brief enough for a student to complete in one or two sittings, but others will need more time. Sections all begin with brief instruction on a concept followed by an example then practice exercises. Some sections will have more than one point of instruction which is then followed with a different style of exercise. The variety keeps things interesting.

Lessons begin with an explanation of “What is Critical Thinking?” They continue with topics such as Decisions and Conclusions, Beliefs and Claims, Evaluating Evidence, Inferring and Inferences, Facts and Probable Truths, Venn Diagrams, Logical Connectives, Advertising, and Agreements and Contracts. After these sections, the last five sections deal with common errors, different types of arguments, and fallacies. The latter sections are introductory as you would expect for a book that can be used for student in the upper elementary grades. While they do not try to cover all types of arguments and fallacies, they build a foundational understanding.

Some of the exercises are similar to critical thinking items that appear on newer standardized tests. These items have a paragraph of information then students must answer questions related to the paragraph, identifying which sentence in the paragraph supports their answer.

The Basics of Critical Thinking is printed in color with frequent illustrations. The book can be reproduced for one class or family per year. A few graphic organizers toward the end of the book might be used multiple times. An answer key is at the back of the book.

While students can do some of their work independently, they should not go too far without a parent or teacher checking their answers to see if they are on track before proceeding to the next section. Sometimes students might interpret information in a way not predicted by the author, yet one that makes logical sense. Consequently, parents or teachers need to be open to alternative answers if they are logically correct. Students are often required to write answers in full sentences. Parents or teachers will need to evaluate these responses, but suggested responses are in the answer key. Most students will need to discuss exercises from time to time when they get stumped, and younger students might need to work through most exercises with someone assisting them.

I suspect that some lessons will be too easy for ninth graders and some too difficult for fourth graders—a predictable problem when one book attempts to cover such a broad span of grade levels. Nevertheless, The Basics of Critical Thinking should be a very effective tool for teaching critical thinking because it teaches so many different strategies with plenty of practical application that students will readily understand.

Pricing Information

All prices are provided for comparison only and are subject to change. Click on prices to verify their accuracy.

Other articles

PPT - Foundations of Critical Thinking PowerPoint presentation

Foundations of Critical Thinking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript and Presenter's Notes


Title: Foundations of Critical Thinking


1
Foundations of Critical Thinking
2
Critical Thinking
  • What is It?
  • Why is it Important?
  • How Does it Improve Teaching and Learning?

3
Critical Thinking isthe art of analyzing and
assessing thinking in order to improve it.
  • Crit

4
Critical Thinking is the awakening of the
intellect to the study of itself.
5
John Henry Newman
  • A man may hear a thousand lectures, and read a
    thousand volumes, and be at the end of the
    process very much where he was, as regards
    knowledge. Something more than merely admitting
    it in a negative way into the mind is necessary
    if it is to remain there. It must not be
    passively received, but actually and actively
    entered into, embraced, mastered. The mind must
    go half-way to meet what comes to it from
    without.

6
Booth Tarkington, author
  • He had learned how to pass examinations by
    cramming that is, in three or four days and
    nights he could get into his head enough of a
    selected fragment of some scientific or
    philosophical or literary or linguistic subject
    to reply plausibly to six questions out of ten.
    He could retain the information necessary for
    such a feat just long enough to give a successful
    performance then it would evaporate utterly from
    his brain, and leave him undisturbed.
  • On what George Amberson had learned in college,
    from the Magnificant Ambersons (1918)

7
Whitehead, The Aims of Education
  • The result of teaching small parts of a large
    number of subjects is the passive reception of
    disconnected ideas, not illuminated with any
    spark of vitality. Let the main ideas which are
    introduced into a childs education be few and
    important, and let them be thrown into every
    combination possible.

8
  • The child should make them his own, and should
    understand their application here and now in the
    circumstances of his actual life. From the very
    beginning of his education, the child should
    experience the joy of discovery. The discovery
    which he has to make is that general ideas give
    an understanding of that stream of events which
    pours through his life.

9
Why concern ourselves with thinking?
10
  • Whenever we are dealing with human life, we are
    almost always dealing with thinking.

11
  • Thinking is the way that the mind makes sense of
    the world.

12
Thinking tells us
  • what there is
  • what is happening
  • what our problems are
  • what our options are
  • what threatens us
  • what is important
  • what is unimportant
  • who our friends are
  • who our enemies are
  • what our history is
  • who we are
  • who loves us

13
Thinking determines
  • what we learn
  • how we learn
  • what we think is important to learn
  • what effort we should expend
  • what we think is true
  • what we think is false
  • how things should be viewed
  • whether our learning is of high or low quality
  • whether our learning is deep or superficial

14
  • Everything we know,
  • believe, want, fear and hope
  • for, our thinking tells us.

15
Most of the worlds problemsare caused by, or
exacerbated by, problems in human thinking
16
Consider these problems
  • Humiliation
  • Hunger
  • Poverty
  • Homelessness
  • Global Warming
  • Torture
  • Murder
  • Rape

17
(No Transcript)
18
Think of some problem behavior your students
engage in.
  • See if you can identify the thinking that leads
    to the behavior.

19
When we place thinking at the center of
instruction
  • we approach students as thinkers
  • we continually seek to connect the content we are
    teaching to the thinking of students
    illuminating how and why the content is important
    to them as thinkers
  • we design instruction so that students have to
    think their way into and through the content.

20
Thinking is at the core of human life and human
problems
21
  • Therefore thinking
  • must be
  • at the core
  • of the
  • curriculum

22
Content is
  • Understood by thinking
  • Constructed by thinking
  • Modified by thinking
  • Applied by thinking
  • Questioned by thinking
  • Assessed by thinking

23
  • Therefore, to learn content
  • students have to think it into their thinking
    using their thinking.

24
  • Critical thinking provides the tools students
    need to think through content.
  • Critical thinking is a system of thinking that
    opens up all other systems of thinking.

25
What is Critical Thinking?
26
  • Critical Thinking
  • is a self-directed process
  • by which we take
  • deliberate steps
  • to think at the
  • highest level of quality.

27
Read, write hear etc
Read It
Write It
Substantive Learning
Draw It
Hear It
Teach It
Apply It
28
Critical thinking is the way you do everything
you do
29
Overview slide
Thinking that assesses thinking
Thinking that analyzes thinking
critical thinking disciplined, self-guided
thinking aimed at living a rational life.
Thinking that develops within itself
intellectual habits
thinking that combats its native egocentricity
30
VirtuesElements Standards
31
(No Transcript)
32
(No Transcript)
33
(No Transcript)
34
(No Transcript)
35
Why Critical Thinking?
  • Work in pairs. Concepts and Tools Miniguide.
    Person A, Person B. Critically read page 1
    together, using the following method
  • a. Person B reads one sentence aloud, then
    states in his/her own words what has been read.
    In other words, person B interprets the sentence.
  • b. Person A then either agrees with the
    interpretation or offers a different
    interpretation, adds to the interpretation, etc.
  • c. During this process, do not critique what you
    are reading, merely interpret.

36
  • d. Person B then reads the second sentence, and
    the same process occurs.
  • e. Person A then takes the next two sentences,
    one sentence at a time, reading, interpreting,
    getting feedback from person B, using the same
    method.
  • f. Take turns reading and interpreting using
    this method, each person reading and interpreting
    two sentences, then switching roles, until the
    entire page is read.

37
Red/green thinking
38
Green Thinking
  • Unconscious Mixture Of High Quality And Low
    Quality Thinking

Spontaneous Subconscious Uncontrolled Impulsive
Self protecting Unanalyzed Reflexive
Self validating
Includes ideas that are valid, as well as
nonsense, confusion, stereotypes, prejudices.
The key is that we cannot distinguish the
difference between high and low quality thought
in green thinking mode. Green thinking goes
without assessing itself.
39
Red Thinking
  • Red Thinking stops and assesses itself before
    going forward.
  • Disciplined Seeks the truth Self
    assessing
  • Critical Thinking Self correcting Probing
  • In red thinking mode, we actively work to
    eliminate prejudices, biases, dysfunctional
    thinking from our thinking. We actively work on
    our thinking.
  • We rigorously apply intellectual standards to our
    thinking.

40
(No Transcript)
41
Trap or free
Your Thinking can either
Trap You
Free You
Open your mind to new ways of thinking
Hold you Hostage within uncritically held
beliefs
42
The critical thinking mind is the educated mind
The Critical Thinking MindThe Educated Mind
43
To learn anything, you must actively bring it
into your thinking.
44
The Test What is Critical Thinking?
  • To be clear in writing
  • 1) state
  • 2) elaborate (In other words)
  • 3) exemplify and/or illustrate
  • Write your understanding of critical thinking, in
    this form
  • 1) Critical thinking is.
  • 2) In other words
  • 3) For example

45
Think for Yourself 1-1Beginning to Think About
Your Thinking
  • To begin to think about your thinking, make a
    list of any problems you believe currently exist
    with your thinking. Try to be as explicit as
    possible. The more problems you identify the
    better. For each problem you identify, complete
    the following statements
  • 1. One problem with my thinking is
  • 2. This is a problem because
  • 3. If I adequately addressed this problem, the
    quality of my life would improve in the following
    ways

46
Think for Yourself 1-2Critique Your Thinking
  • Consider your thinking in these domains of your
    life at work, in personal relationships, in
    teaching, in intimate relationships, as a reader,
    as a writer, in planning your life, in dealing
    with your emotions, in figuring out complex
    situations. Complete these statements
  • Right now, I believe my thinking across all
    domains of my life is of ______________ quality.
    I based this judgment on _________________.
  • 1. In the following areas, I think very well
  • 2. In the following areas, my thinking is OK, not
    great, but not terrible either
  • 3. In the following areas, my thinking is
    probably of low quality
  • List at least three areas for each of the above.

47
(No Transcript)
48
The Quality of My Teaching
  • is given in the thinking
  • that I do about my
  • Teaching

49
What is critical thinking?
  • Concepts and Tools Guide
  • Silently read page 1 then discuss.
  • p. 2 then discuss.
  • p. 318
  • p. 4
  • p. 6
  • p. 9
  • p.12
  • p. 19
  • p. 18

50
Robert Reich, former secretary of labor for Bill
Clinton
  • Reich identifies four components of the kind of
    thinking that highly paid workers will
    increasingly need to master
  • Command of abstractions
  • Ability to think within systems
  • Ability to evaluate ideas
  • Ability to communicate effectively

51
What do you know about thinking?What do you
know about the connection between thinking and
learning?
52
  • What have you learned about how you think?
  • Did you ever study your thinking?
  • What information do you have, for example, about
    the intellectual processes that occur as your
    mind thinks?

53
  • What do you know about how to analyze, evaluate,
    or reconstruct your thinking?
  • Where does your thinking come from?
  • How much of it is of good quality?
  • How much of it is of poor quality?

54
  • Are you, in any real sense, in control of your
    thinking?
  • How do you control your thinking?
  • Do you know how to test it?
  • Do you have any conscious standards for
    determining when you are thinking well and when
    you are thinking poorly?

55
  • Have you ever discovered a significant problem in
    your thinking and then changed it by a conscious
    act of will?
  • If anyone asked you to teach them what you have
    learned, thus far in your life, about thinking,
    would you really have any idea what that was or
    how you learned it?

56
  • What does each of these intellectual virtues
    mean?
  • Why are they important in instruction?
  • How would you articulate the opposite of each one?

57
Plan for systematic approach
The Idea of Critical Thinking
Teaching strategies
Typical day/Typical lessons
Semester design
Period of learning and experimentation
Roll out across the discipline or school
58
Analyzing the concept of Education
  • What is the purpose of education?
  • What key questions should we be asking in
    education (that should drive instruction)?
  • What information should we use to determine how
    we should approach students/instruction?
  • What key ideas or concepts should guide
    education?
  • If we truly educate students, what are some
    important implications for students and
    society?
  • What should we assume, or take for granted, about
    what it means to be an educated person?

59
Logic of Student Thinking
Logic of Content
Logic of Critical Thinking
60
Logic of Student Thinking
  • varies from student to student
  • But with certain identifiable patterns

61
Student beliefs/habits that affect learning
  • Its true if the teacher says it is true.
  • It is true if my friends believe it.
  • It is true if it agrees with what I already
    think.
  • Learning should be easy.
  • Learning should always be fun.
  • If I am not learning it is the teachers fault.
  • I am too stupid to learn this.
  • If I have to ask a question in class, I am dumb.
  • I am the only person with a question, so I must
    be the only dumb person here.

62
  • If I finish my work first, I am smarter than
    everyone else.
  • If the teacher calls on me more that the other
    students, it shows I am smarter than them.
  • If the teacher calls on me more that the other
    students, it shows I am dumber than them.
  • The only things worth learning are those that
    will be on the test.
  • The only things worth learning are the things
    that will increase my job-earning potential.
  • All I should do is the minimum to get by.
  • Since I am smarter than everyone else in the
    class, I have nothing to learn from them.
  • I shouldnt have to waste my time teaching other
    students since it isnt my problem if they are
    slow.

63
  • The teacher will explain everything I need to
    know.
  • If other students think I am dumb, I am dumb.
  • If other students think I am smart, I am smart.
  • I am too stupid to learn complicated things.

64
Students need to face these assumptions and
habits of mind and deal with them.
  • They need intervention strategies that they
    create and regularly use, to change these habits.

65
I understand science when I can think
scientifically, when I can
  • Formulate scientific questions
  • Pursue scientific purposes
  • Gather relevant scientific information
  • Make reasonable scientific inferences
  • Follow out logical scientific implications
  • Think within a scientific point of view (or
    multiple scientific viewpoints)
  • Clarify and use scientific assumptions
  • Clarify and use scientific concepts

66
Circle Dots
67
standardselementstraits
68
(No Transcript)
69
What things do minds constructespecially
habitually?What are students minds constructing?
  • Arguments
  • Values
  • Purposes
  • Concepts, theories
  • Assumptions
  • Prejudices
  • Self-delusive narratives
  • Stories about themselves and their friends
  • Rationalizations
  • Experiences (as interpretations)
  • Half-truths

70
What are we asking students to construct in our
classes?
  • What is the value of those constructs for
    thinking within the discipline?
  • or for living their lives?

71
We assume that students are constructing the
meanings we intend
  • But often people listen for
  • what they agree with.
  • what they disagree with.
  • Or they arent listening at all.

72
(No Transcript)
73
(No Transcript)

PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.

You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!

For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!

presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!

For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!