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The Thinker Sculpture Analysis Essay

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The Thinker

title = The Thinker
artist = Auguste Rodin
year = 1902
type = Bronze and Marble
city = Paris
museum = Musée Rodin

"The Thinker " ( _fr. Le Penseur ) is a bronze and marble sculpture by Auguste Rodin held in the Musée Rodin in Paris. It depicts a man in sober meditation battling with a powerful internal struggle Fact|date=September 2008. It is often used to represent philosophy .

Originally named "The Poet", the piece was part of a commission by the Musée des Arts Décoratifs. Paris to create a monumental portal to act as the door of the museum. Rodin based his theme on "The Divine Comedy " of Dante and entitled the portal " The Gates of Hell ". Each of the statues in the piece represented one of the main characters in the epic poem. "The Thinker" was originally meant to depict Dante in front of the Gates of Hell. pondering his great poem. (In the final sculpture, a miniature of the statue sits atop the gates, pondering the hellish fate of those beneath him.)" The sculpture is nude, as Rodin wanted a hero ic figure in the tradition of Michelangelo. to represent intellect as well as poetry ".

Rodin made a first small plaster version around 1880. The first large-scale bronze cast was finished in 1902, but not presented to the public until 1904. It became the property of the city of Paris – thanks to a subscription organized by Rodin admirers – and was put in front of the Panthéon in 1906. In 1922, it was moved to the Hôtel Biron. which was transformed into a Rodin Museum .

More than any other Rodin sculpture, "The Thinker" moved into the popular imagination as an immediately recognizable icon of intellectual activity; consequently, it has been subject to endless satirical use. This started in Rodin's lifetime.

Over twenty casts of the sculpture are in museums around the world. Some of these copies are enlarged versions of the original work, and some are sculptures of different scales.

* Indonesia
** Canisius College
* Israel
** Tel Aviv in the RAD Data Communications entrance lobby
* Japan
** Kyoto National Museum
** The National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo
* Turkey
** [http://muze.sabanciuniv.edu/english/index.php Sakıp Sabancı Museum ] in Istanbul

* Belgium
** Laeken cemetery, near Brussels. Belgium
* Denmark
** Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen
* France
** Musée Rodin Paris (the original sculpture)
** Saint Paul De Vence
* Netherlands
** [http://www.singerlaren.nl/museum.htm Singer Laren ]. Laren (badly damaged by thieves in 2007)
* Norway
** National Gallery of Norway in Oslo
* Switzerland
** Kunsthaus Zürich
* United Kingdom
** Cambridge University (Jimmy Tide House) Cambridge
** [ Burrell Collection - Pollok House Glasgow ]
* The Vatican
** The Vatican Museums ' Collection of Modern Religious Art

* Canada
** MacLaren Art Centre. Barrie. Ontario [ [http://www.maclarenart.com/media/media_releases.cfm?ID=198&SR=7 MacLaren Art Centre - Media Releases - The Thinker Reviewed ] ]
* Mexico
** [http://www.museosoumaya.com Museo Soumaya ]. Mexico City
* United States
** Baltimore Museum of Art. Maryland
** Cleveland Museum of Art (badly damaged by vandalism in 1970, displayed in an unrepaired state) [ [http://www.clevescene.com/stories/15/65/a-god-among-men The Cleveland Free Times. Freestyle. Freestyle Lead. A God Among Men ] ]
** Columbia University. in New York City (outdoors in front of Philosophy Hall on campus)
** Detroit Institute of Arts. Michigan
** Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City. Missouri
**The University of Louisville ; Louisville, Kentucky
**The Rodin Museum. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
**The Maryhill Museum of Art, Goldendale, Washington [ [http://www.cityofgoldendale.com/art_culture.shtml City of Goldendale - Arts & Culture ] ]
**The California Palace of the Legion of Honor. San Francisco
** Stanford University. Stanford, California
**The Norton Simon Museum. Pasadena, California (cast #11 [ [http://www.nortonsimon.org/collections/browse_title.asp?id=M.1970.2.S Browse by Title - Norton Simon Museum ] ] sometimes seen during the Tournament of Roses Parade )
**The Hillstrom Museum of Art at Gustavus Adolphus College in St. Peter, Minnesota. April 1 - April 22, 2008
**The National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. [http://www.nga.gov/cgi-bin/pinfo?Object=1008+0+none The Thinker (Le Penseur) ] ]
**Bal Harbour Shops, Miami, Florida [ [http://www.artinfo.com/galleryguide/artwork/19244/5801/6136/auguste-rodin-the-thinker/ ]

* Australia
** The National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
** The Sydney Opera House, Sydney

* Argentina
** Buenos Aires in front of the Parliament Building [ [http://www.panoramio.com/photo/6443 Panoramio - Photo of Réplica firmada de &quote;El pensador&quote; de August Rodin ] ]

*The [http://www.penseur.org/ Thinker project ]. Munich. Discussion of the history of the many casts of this artwork.

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Rodin - s - Thinker

Rodin's "Thinker"

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"The Thinker is a larger than life-size bronze sculpture of a nude male figure sitting on rock. The figure sits hunched over leaning on his right palm and his left arm resting on his leg, hand clenched in a fist. The Thinker's body is immense, with bulging well defined musculature and fluid composition; he appears very strong and solid. The surface of the bronze is unrefined unlike the smoothness of Greek, Roman or classical sculptures but bares some of the same features. The figure, as the name suggests, sits in deep thought, his knuckles pressed against his mouth and brows lowered in concentration. There is a tension in the figure's body, as if he could suddenly rise and lift himself from the rock to embark upon whatever he was thinking about. Rodin created sculptures with similar materials, utilizing surface quality, interpretations of their own senses of naturalism and investigation of the human form as vehicles for expression.

Rodin's sculptures connect work from the Romantic 19th century to the 20th century's push toward Modernism. During a time when sculpture was apart of architecture design or used for decorative public dedication Rodin created sculpture as art itself. He took sculpture from this realm and placed it in an environment to be admired on its own. Rodin also departed from the style of classical posing of the figure for a more natural relaxed everyday pose, which resulted in accusations of casting directly from his models.

The original idea for "The Thinker" came from Dante's "The Divine Comedy". During the 19th century Europe rediscovered Art and Writing from the Middle Ages like Dante's Inferno from which the original concept for 'The Thinker" was derived. In 1880 Rodin was commissioned to create a set of bronze doors for a new museum.

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Thinker of Cernavoda: Neolithic Terracotta Sculpture

Thinker of Cernavoda (c.5,000 BCE)

For a list of the world's most
talented 3-D artists, see:
Greatest Sculptors .

One of the great masterpieces of late Stone Age art. this extraordinary terracotta sculpture. known as The Thinker ("Ganditorul"), was unearthed in 1956 - together with a similar statuette of a female figure, known as The Sitting Woman of Cernavoda. and numerous other similar, though headless figurines - during archeological excavations of Neolithic settlement and burial debris in the lower Danube region, near Cernavoda in Romania. Created during the Hamangia culture, it is believed to be the oldest known prehistoric sculpture that reflects human introspection, rather than the usual artistic concerns of hunting or fertility. As a result it has become an iconic sculptural figure of prehistoric art. and a striking example of Neolithic art for art's sake. It currently resides in the National Museum of Romanian History, Bucharest. For another important but much older example of prehistoric art from Romania, see: Coliboaia Cave Art (30,000 BCE).

For more about Stone Age
paintings and engravings, see:
Rock Art (200,000-2,000 BCE)
Petroglyphs ((290,000 - 4,000 BCE)
Cave Painting (30,000 - 10,000 BCE).

Characteristics and History

The Thinker of Cernavoda depicts a human figure (traditionally interpreted as male) sitting on a stool, with his head in his hands and his elbows on his knees. Although seen as male, the figure's gender is not completely unambiguous - an attribute common to many ancient figurines from southeast Europe. His small angular head sits on top of a thick extended neck, while the eyes, which are too large for the face, are rendered as concave rather than the more usual convex-shape typical of Romanian carvings. His broad-hipped trunk has thick thighs and calves.

Coloured a dark brownish-red, the sculpture is 4.5 inches tall and is made out of terracotta, an unglazed, clay-based ceramic. It was created during the Hamangia culture (named after the site of Baia-Hamangia), a Late Neolithic archeological culture (5250-4500 BCE) which took root in Dobruja (Romania and Bulgaria) between the River Danube and the Black Sea. It is worth noting that the body as a whole is entirely devoid of the ornamentation or engraved decoration which is frequently seen in plastic art and pottery of both the Hamangia culture and the subsequent Cucuteni culture (4500-3000 BCE). It is also quite different from the bolder zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figurines, animal-head jewellery, and other cult objects of the nearby Vinca culture (5500–4500 BCE; named after the type site, Vinca-Belo Brdo), which was centred on Serbia, but extended into Romania and Bulgaria. (See also: Primitive Art .)

The Sitting Woman of Cernavoda. too, is quite plain and undecorated, unlike the usually extremely stylized, faceless female figurines complete with exaggerated breasts and buttocks.

Unfortunately, nothing is known about the sculptor who created the Thinker of Cernavoda. his workshop or school, or whether his style was copied by his contemporaries. See also: History of Sculpture.

To see how the Romanian Thinker of Cernavoda - arguably one of the greatest sculptures ever - fits into the evolution of terracotta sculpture during the late Stone Age, see: Prehistoric Art Timeline.

Other Neolithic Sculptures

The era of Neolithic art (in southeast Europe, c.7,000-2,500 BCE) is the source for a number of important archeological finds of carvings and other 3-D art. They include the following:

The Enthroned Goddess of Catal Huyuk/Catalhoyuk (c.6000 BCE)
Baked-clay statuette of a nude female form, representing a fertile Mother Goddess about to give birth. Discovered in 1961, in Anatolia, Turkey.

Vidovdanka (5500-4700 BCE) National Museum of Serbia
Late Mesolithic terracotta anthropomorphic figurine discovered at Vinca-Belo Brdo, near Belgrade, Serbia, in 1930.

Lepenski Vir Sculptures (c.5000 BCE)
Consisting of a number of prehistoric sandstone carvings of therianthropic figures, discovered in the Danube settlement of Lepenski Vir in Serbia.

Greek Female Figurine (c.4250 BCE) Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC
Headless marble sculpture of a woman, carved using obsidian tools.

Egyptian Female Figurine (c.3700 BCE) British Museum, London.
Naqada I period sculpture made from bone and lapis lazuli.

Egyptian Mourning Figurine (c.3500 BCE) Brooklyn Museum of Art.
Naqada II period terracotta sculpture found at Burial 2 at El Mamariya.

Sleeping Lady of Malta (3100 BCE) Museum of Archeology, Valletta
Terracotta sculpture, symbol of the Maltese Temple Period (4100-2500 BCE).

Ram in a Thicket (c.2500 BCE)
Sculpture made from red limestone, copper, lapis lazuli, and gold-leaf, unearthed at the Great Death Pit, Ur, Iraq.

Maikop Gold Bull (c.2500 BCE)
One of four gold and silver sculptures of bulls, produced during the Russian Maikop culture of the North Caucasus.

• For a list of the greatest works of prehistoric painting and sculpture, see: Oldest Art .
• For a more comprehensive list, see: Oldest Stone Age Art: Top 100 Works .
• For more about the history of three-dimensional art, see: Homepage.

© visual-arts-cork.com. All rights reserved.

The Thinker Analysis

The Thinker Analysis

The style which Auguste Rodin developed throughout his professional life can in part be attributed to his artistic education or the lack of it in any formal capacity. When the young Rodin was rejected from the prestigious École des Beaux-Arts he missed out on the Neoclassical training which was still very much part of the curriculum at the school during this period.

Without this strict training the artist was able to develop a much freer and more emotional style that would essentially be the making of his work. The Thinker is certainly a product of this unusual artistic development.

Rodin's The Thinker was originally part of The Gates of Hell which was completed on commission in 1882. What became known as The Thinker was originally intended to represent the poet Dante as he contemplated writing The Divine Comedy, on which The Gates of Hell was based.

When Rodin created this figure separately from the original work it lost its association with Dante and has become known all over the world as a symbol of philosophy and knowledge.

The Thinker Composition

Auguste Rodin created The Thinker in a way that mirrors the heroes of Michelangelo. The nude figure is muscular, taunt, and valiant. This demonstrates to the viewer the high regard with which Rodin held Dante and creative thinkers in general.

The seating of the figure is interesting as it immediately invokes the contemplative mood of this piece that would have been hard to create were the man stood up or looking out into the distance. The hunched torso is simple but adds to the sense of power that is apparent but by no means threatening. Rodin's brilliance at representing the character and feeling of his sitters is beautifully displayed here.

The Thinker Use of Technique

Often completing preliminary sketches and models, Rodin would then leave the carving of the full size marble to one of his assistants. Finally, the artist would take control of the work to add finishing touches and make sure that the piece fitted his exacting standards. This process is how The Thinker would have been developed.

The Thinker Mood, Tone and Emotion

The contemplative look of The Thinker gives this sculpture a feeling of calm and yet this piece is by no means a frivolous or relaxed piece. The Thinker conjures up images of intelligence and deep thought, themes that are universal in their appeal. Unlike some of Rodin's more complex or abstract works The Thinker is relatively simple in its design and this may go some way to explain its popularity.

The Thinker Textures

The Thinker was originally made in a much smaller form and when it was produced as a separate sculpture it was originally created in plaster. Bronze casts have been produced from the original ever since its completion. As Rodin became more successful he began to employ a host of assistants, all of whom had specific jobs to perform.

The Thinker Perspective

The original copy of The Thinker was not made on commission and therefore does not have an original place in which it was created to sit in the same way that other works by Rodin had. It's clear from the finish of the work however that this sculpture was supposed to be looked at in the round.

Many of the bronze copies, as well as the original plasters for this piece have been displayed in a central position so that visitors can see it from every conceivable angle.

Auguste Rodin Page Menu

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Sculpture Review of Spartacus Breaking His Chains - Sculpture Review of Spartacus Breaking His Chains This nineteen century sixteen inch sculpture was created by Denis Foyatier. The sculpture is of Spartacus, a man who served as a leader in a revolt against slavery. This statue was composed of bronze and could be distinguished by its fine polish and style. This bronze statue stood in a mobile upright position, the left foot extended forward, the arms crossed around the lower chest region. Foyatier succeeded in producing a vivid and convincing figure by using the techniques of shape, texture and details. [tags: Papers]

477 words
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A Study of Small Sculpture from the Mesoamerican Societies - The Olmec, Maya, and Aztec were dominating societies of Mesoamerica, rich in culture, community, and art. While life may not be completely interpretable yet, much in known about how these societies were constructed, and how their religion dominated their lives. Much is generally made of their massive stonework, their ceremonial complexes, and ritual sacrifices, but their small jade, ceramic, and stone sculpture deserves as much attention as the works of much larger size have received. The Olmec were thought to have set many of the patterns seen in later cultures throughout Mesoamerica.1 San Lorenzo, the oldest known Olmec building site, as of the time of the Brittanica article, is know. [tags: essays research papers]

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Auguste Rodin's Life and Accomplishments - The Thinker “Nothing is a waste of time if you use the experience wisely” -Auguste Rodin The quote above, perfectly describes the kind of person Rodin was, and the type of art he produced. Rodin is known as a very proactive, persevering, and innovative man from history. One of Rodin’s most amazing sculptures, The Thinker, is renowned as one of the most innovative and inspiring art pieces ever created. This magnificent and fascinating sculpture was so influential because of its themes of mental creativity, intellect, and spirituality. [tags: the thinker, sculpture, michelangelo]
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ROMAN COPIES OF GREEK ORIGINALS - The construct of the ‘Roman copy’ in art history has deeply rooted and extensive origins. Whilst this prejudiced was attached to Roman sculpture from an extremely early time in modern archaeology and art history, the construct viewed in a current context reveals issues with both its development and contribution to historical understanding and education. The construct is formed upon several main factors that have recently been called into question by revisionist historians. Firstly, the development of the construct by conservative historians during the 18th century, a context that valued artistic originality and authenticity, lead to it’s popularisation and circulation as a respected model. [tags: Roman Sculpture, Historical Construct]

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Associative Art: A Reasonable Solution for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - In recent times, trying to express oneself has become increasingly difficult; this is as such with patients suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a result of extreme exposure to physical harm or danger. These traumatic experiences could be caused by reasons such as near-death, serious accident, violence, war, torture, or any event that causes extreme fear. A common occurrence with patients dealing with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a hesitancy or inability to discuss or express emotions and thoughts verbally. [tags: sculpture, drawing, and painting]
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The Statue of Hatshepsut - The statue of Hatshepsut seated down is made with the material limestone. This limestone is lightly colored, which created a larger contrast with the other statues nearby. Her face was carved bringing out her eyes, eyebrows and other facial features. Her eyebrows also come slightly together towards the middle. Her lips forming a slight archaic smile. The dimensions are larger than an average female size. The statue is of great size, yet still in proportion. The body and head fit well with each other overall. [tags: Wounded Amazon, art, sculpture, limestone]
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The Statue of Zeus at Olympia - The Statue of Zeus at Olympia In the world today, there are many spectacular sculptures and artworks. The statue of Zeus at Olympia and the seated statue of Khafre are just two examples of dominant artworks. The statue of Zeus at Olympia was possibly the most famous statue in the ancient world. The Greek sculptor Phidias made it about 435 BC, and dedicated to Zeus, the king of gods. The seated statue of Khafre from the fourth dynasty of the Old Kingdom (2520- 492 BC) was created by an unknown artist. [tags: Art, Sculpture, Greek, Informative]

320 words
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The Football Player Duane Hanson - What force is so strong that it has the power to bring even the strongest man to his knees. What force plagues the workforce at all hours of the day. What force prevents continuous work at all times of the day, making us bow to the night as if to say “We are not strong enough”. That force is exhaustion, the most terrible and rarely conquerable force on earth. As I stood staring at such a life-like sculpture in the confines of a briskly chilly art museum corridor, I could only imagine the amount of exhausted nights the sculptor had to endure to create his extremely exhausted masterpiece. [tags: Sculpture Statue Art Artwork]
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Progression of the Kouroi - Progression of the Kouroi What is a kouros. In Greek, kouros means a young man. In art, a kouros is a statue of a young nude male who stands with his hands at his sides and one leg, usually his left, advanced. Throughout the Archaic period, which dates from 610 B.C. to 480 B.C. the basic pose of kouroi (plural for kouros) remained the same, though the anatomy of the figures gradually became more naturalistic or true to life. The ideology that the Greek sculptors wanted to achieve greater naturalism is proven through the progression of the kouroi during the period. [tags: Kouroi Greek Sculpture Essays]
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1348 words
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Roman Woman Profile - Roman Woman Profile The sculpture that we have observed has been dated to the first half of the first century C.E. This places the portrait during the Julio-Claudian period in Roman history. From the information we have gathered about the time period, the woman's style of dress and of the types of sculpture prevelant during the period, we have formed a possible profile of the daily life of the subject. It was determined that the women in the portrait was most likely a freeborn, upper-middle class citizen of Rome. [tags: Sculpture Art Roman Essays]
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Cultural Experience at James E. Lewis Museum - Cultural Experience at James E. Lewis Museum Art is known as one of the greatest assets that portrays different African cultures. African art includes pottery, sculptures, and masks. It serves different purposes such as entertainment, education, and communication with spirits. Wood, iron, clay, and textiles are used in sculpting pieces of African art, especially when creating masks. Art allowed African ancestors to preserve the value of the culture and maintain social order in communities. Each culture has its own artwork that presents a different meaning. [tags: art, african cultures, pottery, sculpture]
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861 words
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Faith of the Fallen, by Terry Goodkind - The book jacket art for the novel Faith of the Fallen, the sixth of a thirteen book series by Terry Goodkind, features a statue of a man and seemingly bursting from the marble which encased them, while their sculptor steps back to examine his work. This statue earns its name Life because of the inscription on its brass ring: Life is yours. Rise up and live it. This statue is the result of the sculptor, Richard Rahl, being kidnapped and forced into bondage in a land ruled by a despotic religious order. [tags: Jacket, Sculpture, Symbolism]
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567 words
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Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara of the Lion’s Roar - The wood stone carved statue of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara sitting upon a lion has gone through many depictions when passed down from India to China. One possible depiction can be representing the lack of identity for a woman while the opponent power, a male influence, restricts that. The sculpted art was created in the late fourteenth to fifteenth century exemplifying an exterior beauty supported by his high cheekbones and a rounded chin below the blushed red perked lips to shape a feminine beauty of the typical Chinese woman. [tags: Sculpture, Symbolism, Background]

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The Sculptures of the East and West Pediments of The Temple of Zeus at Olympia - Use of Movement and Characterisation in the Sculptures of the East and West Pediments of The Temple of Zeus at Olympia The architectural sculpture of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia dates from between 465 and 457BC. Putting the temple into historical context, this was a somewhat flourishing time in Greek history, drama, and philosophy. In 490BC, the Athenians won a great victory at Marathon against the Persians, and in 480BC the Persians sacked Athens but were eventually defeated in a naval victory for the Athenians at Salamis. [tags: Art History]

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Greek Hellenistic Sculptures - Sculpture has been a very important part of art history throughout thousands of years. For the past few months I have viewed many different kinds of sculpture, including Greek archaic sculptures, Greek classical sculptures, Greek Hellenistic sculptures and Roman sculptures. All of the sculptures that I have seen and analyzed have very interesting characteristics, but the one that I have analyzed most recently was the most fascinating. Hermes carrying the infant Dionysos, by the artist Praxiteles, was sculpted circa 350 B.C. and the copy that I analyzed, circa second century B.C. [tags: essays research papers]

1432 words
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Comparing the Sculptures and Different Structures of Cathedrals - Comparing the Sculptures and Different Structures of Cathedrals The Cathedral was a symbol of authority and religious achievement to people of the Middle Ages. Both Romanesque and Gothic style cathedrals are monuments to the skill and creativity of medieval people. Upon entering a Romanesque or Gothic style cathedral, one would have noticed that the function of these houses of worship is very similar. They are each an urban religious center in which priests conducted masses. Upon further examination of the sculptures and the different structures that embody them, one would have found that they differ quite dramatically. [tags: Papers]

457 words
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The Human Body in Ancient Greek Sculptures - The Human Body in Ancient Greek Sculptures The primary focus of ancient Greek sculptures was that of the human body. Almost all Greek sculptures are of nude subjects. As the first society to focus on nude subjects, Greek sculptors attempted to "depict man in what they believed was the image of the gods and so would come to celebrate the body by striving for verisimilitude or true – likeness (realism and naturalism!)."(Riffert) Not only did the Greeks celebrate the human form in their art but also in everyday life. [tags: Art History Essays]
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1006 words
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Sculptures in James Baldwin's If Beale Street Could Talk - In Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself, Douglass describes his overseer as “a man of the most inflexible firmness and stone-like coolness” (Andrews 181). He adds that his mistress’s “tender heart became stone” (Andrews 188). When he first tries to free himself from such people, Douglass ends up “all alone, within the walls of a stone prison” (Andrews 208). Throughout these references, the image of stone is repeatedly linked with the stonehearted and dramatic Caucasian oppression of African-Americans. [tags: James Baldwin Beale Street Could Talk Essays]
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1946 words
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Order, Disorder and Imagination in John Buck’s Sculptures - Order, Disorder and Imagination in John Buck’s Sculptures There is always a first impression, a first glance seeping through the corner of your eye. When passing by one can’t help but to notice the overwhelming presence of John Buck’s freestanding sculptures which stand in front of the Gallery. I find myself overwhelmed by both the size and the boldness by which these sculptures speak. Their organized structural nature combines a variety of ideas from branches, birdhouses to molecular structures and globes, and in the middle of it all stands the ringing human form. [tags: Art Essays]

780 words
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Art Work Analysis: Michelangelo and The Renaissance - This paper will argue that Michelangelo was a true renaissance artist by sharing information about his life, artwork, and analysis. Michelangelo was born at Rome, in March 6, 1475. He was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance. He was considered the greatest artist of his time. When he was introduced to art, he basically worked with marble his whole life and worked in other arts during specific time periods. His two best-known works are the Pieta and the David. [tags: renaissance artist, sculptures]

685 words
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Renaissance in Cinquecento Italy - Chapter 22: Renaissance in Cinquecento Italy Exercises for Study: 1. Select one of the following pair of artworks and describe the differences you observe between them. Each pair consists of art of the Early Renaissance (Chapter 21) and that of the High and Late Renaissance (Chapter 22). Examine the composition, technique, position of the figures, and facial expressions, as well as any relevant elements of art and principals of design (see handout from September or Google “art elements and design principals”). [tags: roman and creek sculptures, art, paints]
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The Art and Philosophy of Balance at Constantin Brâncusi - The Art and Philosophy of Balance at Constantin Brâncusi Motto: "All dilemmas can be solved by unifying the contraries" (Brâncusi) ABSTRACT: Our paper intends to be an attempt of making evident the joining of the art and the philosophy of Constantin Brâncusi, the most outstanding representative of sculpture in our century. The way of approaching this topic was suggested to us by the great artist and thinker himself, who urges us that we should not make difficult what he expressed in a simple way. [tags: Art Philosophical Sculture Essays]
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The Parthenon Sculptures Should Be Returned to Greece - The Greeks finished building an exquisite temple to their beloved goddess, Athena in the year 432 BCE. (Sayre 60). The name of this enriched, unique temple was the Parthenon. The Parthenon took the Greeks approximately fifteen years to complete and as Pericles stated, it was built to give gratitude to their goddess Athena for the salvation of their city, Athens and all of Greece in the Persian Wars (Sayre 60). It was also a symbol of their power and superiority among other cultures. It was something the Greeks took great pride in and recognized it to a great extent. [tags: greek, athena, parthenon]
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1241 words
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The Art of Sculpting - The Art of Sculpting Sculpting is the art of working with stone, bronze, and wood by chipping at it to form a beautiful piece of art. The art of sculpting was known thousands of years ago in the time of “THE OLD STONE AGE.” During this time the people thought that they would make the sculptures to praise their gods, kings, queens, and goddesses. The people also made sculptures of animals they believed that the animals would see this and protect them from other harmful animals. [tags: Sculptures Greek Greece Essays]

434 words
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The Study of Male Beauty - Many artists started experimenting with new styles of art throughout the Baroque Ages to the present time. These paintings and sculptures were famous for the detailed work and the beauty of art. To define male beauty, these arts have simplified the creativity in masculinity. For centuries, the art of male beauty has been constantly changing and the portrayal of men has become more feminine in many artworks. These changes in these artworks were caused by the increase of time that has passed and the occurrences that had influenced people to associate these experiences through their masterpieces. [tags: sculptures,artwork, louis XIV, baroques ages]
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1474 words
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Egyptian Art and Architecture - Egyptian Art and Architecture Egyptian Art and Architecture, the buildings, paintings, sculpture, and allied arts of ancient Egypt, from prehistoric times to its conquest by the Romans in 30 bc. Egypt had the longest unified history of any civilization in the ancient Mediterranean, extending with few interruptions from about 3000 bc to the 4th century ad. The nature of the country, fertilized and united by the Nile, and its semi-isolation from outside cultural influences, produced an artistic style that changed little during this long period. [tags: Egypt Paintings Sculptures Buildings Essays]

4122 words
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How Andy Goldsworthy Expresses His Feelings through His Works - How Andy Goldsworthy Expresses His Feelings through His Works Andy Goldsworthy was born in Cheshire in 1956 and was brought up in Yorkshire. He studied at Bradford College of Art (1974-75) and Preston Polytechnic (1975-78). After leaving college Goldsworthy lived in Yorkshire, Lancashire and Cumbria. He moved over the border to Langholm, Dumfriesshire in 1985 and to Penpont one year later. This gradual drift northwards was due to a way of life over which he did not have complete control. However, contributing factors were opportunities and desires to work in these areas and reasons of economy. [tags: Andy Goldworthy Art Sculptors Sculptures Essays]

950 words
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Enlightenment and Implicitness: Devine and Gender Images - Enlightenment and Implicitness: Devine and Gender Images I question what shapes our cultural gender identities in the modern society. How do historical facts and belief systems shaped my identity as a woman of color in contemporary United States. In order to discover this complicated context, first I needed to seek answers from Japanese history and social allusion. How were my gender images, beliefs, and ideology resulted to desire lifestyle in America instead of my motherland, Japan. … In the beginning, there were disturbance and fear I faced disturbance and fear towards my gender identity through body mapping at the beginning of the quarter. [tags: Modern Society, Culture, Sculptures, Art]

831 words
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Nataraja of Shiva - When I went to Museum of Metropolitan of Art, I saw many interesting works of arts. I was so amazed by all of the art-work. It was a tough decision to choose one work to focus on for my art paper, but there was one sculpture that caught my eye; it was Nataraja of Shiva (11th century) from Ancient Southeastern Art located on the 2nd floor of the museum. The main message of this sculpture is focused on the idea of the boundaries of cosmos and the destruction and rebirth of the world. This paper will employ close visual analysis of this sculpture and describe how the visual elements of the work relate to its main theme. [tags: Sanskritm, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
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1477 words
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Comparing Two Sculptors - This essay will compare and contrast the work of two sculptors who use the human form as a basis of their artwork. The first sculpture “Apollo and Daphne” by Gian Lorenzo Bernini was created in 1622 and portrays a Romanian story. Where as “Two Women” by Ron Mueck is a hyper realistic sculpture made by an Australian contemporary artist. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was a traditional sculptor that was born in 1598 and created art pieces such as “Apollo and Daphne” for well-known churches in Rome. On the other hand, Ron Mueck is a contemporary sculptor from Australia who is known to use hyper-realism when creating magnificent sculptures of the human form. [tags: Art]

617 words
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The Significance of the Yogini - The 10th century sculpture from India known as the Yogini depicts a composition of a meditating woman, exuding a sense of tranquility from her stoic demeanor. Her large presence commands a sense of authority. Her mythical significance as a goddess, indicated by the placard beside her, corroborates this sensation of power surrounding her. Through the power embodied by the Yogini, demonstrated by the focused precision on her features, the sculptor emphasizes the significance of the Yogini. The first indication of the power associated with the Yogini is the overall appearance of the sculpture. [tags: Art Analysis ]

1064 words
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Graeco-Buddhist Art in Gandhara - Influence of one culture to another one is a common concept up until now. Even in this 21st century, we can see many influences which lead to an ending product mixed with two or more cultures. Similarly during the second century, there were vast amount of evidences in which we can see influence of Graeco-Roman art in Buddhist iconography (Fisher 1993). In a region called Gandhara (now Pakistan), we could easily see these kinds of influences in stone sculptures of Bodhisattvas. In this paper, we will see a comparison between a ‘Male Head From a Relief’ from Roman period with ‘Head of Bodhisattva’ from Gandhara, Kushan Dynasty and how sculptures in Buddhism had influence of Graeco-Roman perio. [tags: Human Cultures / Art / Religion]
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Analysis of Centaur Abducting Woman with Fallen Lapith Man - Perhaps the most interesting period in Greek sculpture is the Classical period. During this glorious period of unbelievable craftsmanship, numerous pieces celebrated the Greek’s infatuation with fable and war. The sculpture, nicely titled Centaur Abducting Lapith Woman and Fallen Lapith Man, is a wonderful symbol of the artistic period and image of war. Sculpted somewhere around 447-438 B.C. the sculpture was carved out of solid marble to produce a beautiful, and yet horrifying scene from a battle. [tags: essays research papers]

798 words
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Critique of Olaf Breuning's Art Exhibition "Small Brain Big Stomach" - Olaf Breuning is a Swiss-born artist now living in New York. His exhibition “Small Brain Big Stomach” consist of wall drawings and wood sculptures. The wall drawings are done in broad, black lines painted directly on the walls. The wooden sculptures are painted black and appear as three dimensional drawings. The imagery of these works is cartoonish, childlike, simple and one dimensional. As one walks into the gallery, it feels like one enters a funhouse filled with black and white wall drawings and sculptures. [tags: art]

617 words
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Lupa Romana Mother of Rome - According to legend, Romulus and Remus were twins born of the god Jupiter and a vestal virgin princess, Rhea Silvia. Rhea Silvia was the daughter of King Numitor. Numitor's brother, Amulius, took the throne from him. When Princess Rhea gave birth to the boys, Amulius ordered them to be killed but their mother put them into a basket and set them into the River Tiber, in hopes that they would survive. The boys were rescued by a she-wolf who cared for them. Shortly after, the she-wolf began to care for them a shepherd named, Faustulus, found them and took them home to raise as his own children. [tags: Art History]
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1190 words
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High Renaissance and Mannerism in Northern Europe and Spain - 1. What are the major characteristics of Mannerist art and architecture. Select an Italian Mannerist painting, sculpture, and architectural work that we discussed in class from chapter 22, and describe the Mannerist features of each. During the late sixteenth century a new style of art, known as Mannerist, emerged through out Italy as a result of the Protestant Reformation. Mannerist distorted art was justified because it served mid way between the ideal, natural, symmetrical and the real, artificial, and unbalanced. [tags: the palazzo, giulio romano]
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Jameson's Theory of Postmodernism - The Modernist era brought with it industrial, social, cultural and psychological shifts in ideologies, practice and systems. Traditional art forms were to be reworked in an upsurge of innovation which moved forward at great speed. As art and the innovation of art progressed into the 21st century cultural criticism dominated. Postmodernist thought radicalized the traditional and modernist concepts of art criticism. Art forms, social, economic and political structures were to be re-examined through many cultural critics. [tags: modernist era, art criticism, Frederic Jameson]
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2697 words
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Claes Oldenburg: Give Existence in Art to Fantasy - “My single-minded aim is to give existence to fantasy." Claes Oldenburg was born in 1929 in Stockholm, Sweden. His father was a Swedish Consul General, and because of his job they moved to Chicago in 1936 where he became an American citizen. When he graduated Yale University in New Heaven, he took up the job as working as a reporter in 1946. Later on in 1952 Oldenburg attended Chicago Art Institute. While he was there he published some drawings in magazines and started to paint pictures. He was inspired by Abstract Expressionism. [tags: Claes Oldenburg, fantasy, ]
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424 words
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Interview and Chatting with August Rodin - Good morning Mr. Rodin. August: Good morning. Interviewer: I’m so excited to be able to conduct this interview with you and find out “what makes Rodin.” Okay let’s get started with one of your pride and joy sculptures and also my personal favorite “The Kiss.” This work shows the passion that can be shared between a male and female, and because this work is so life like its almost as though you can feel this passion being shared as well. The detail and texture that you put into creating the body of the female and male is magnificent. [tags: age of bronze, masterpiece, the kiss]
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992 words
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Stonehenge, Kritios Bay, and the Portrait of Constantine - While reading Chapter One, the first thing that caught my eye was Stonehenge. Though not a traditional piece of artwork such as a painting or sketch, this strategically placed grouping of stones has always had me intrigued. This sculpture dates back to 2550-1600 BCE, and also is classified of one the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. (Kleiner, 2013) The 45-50 ton rocks create a circle, with various rocks place on top of one another. The tall vertical rock is titled a monolith and the horizontal rock is the lintel, which supports the vertical rocks and creates an opening. [tags: The Evolution of Art]

694 words
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Art and Resistance in the West Bank Part 3 -. It is a non-violent means of resistance that attracts a different kind of struggle against violence. Sculpture: Sculpture unlike the graffiti and murals on the wall are physical representation that due to their transportable nature has more that one center of exhibition. As a result, sculptures made in Bil’in are used to resist the wall and later are exhibited in Minsher Gallary in Tel Aviv. Here the piece of art is able to trespass its physical space of creation and thus potentially reach more people but also have new meaning. [tags: Palestinian-Israeli relations, violence]
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1348 words
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Athena Parthenos: The Goddess of Wisdom - The people of Greece believed in mythology and believed they were blessed by the deity which inspired the artists’ creation of the spectacular sculptures including Athena Parthenos, the goddess of wisdom. Wisdom during this period was highly regarded. Most of the sculptures in Athens were made of different types of bronze. (See Figure 1.) This is a copy of the sculpture of Athena Parthenos, dressed in battle attire, that was originally created by Phidias during the period of 447-39 B.C. The statue of Athena Parthenos was to be constructed, not of bronze, but of gold and ivory. [tags: Art]
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861 words
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The Life and Works of Michelangelo - Michelangelo di Ludovico Buonarroti Simoni was born on March 6, 1475, in Caprese, Italy (“Michelangelo”, 2013). His childhood was lacking in affection, and when he was only six years old his mother, Francesca Neri, died of an illness leaving him with his father, Ludovico. (Ruehring). At a young age, Ludovico realized Michelangelo’s intellectual potential and enrolled him in Francesco Galeota’s school (Ruehring). While at the school, Michelangelo met a student of the painter Domenico Ghirlandaio. [tags: Biography, Artist]
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Joan of Arc Statue - The iconic monumental statue of Joan of Arc is located on Riverside Drive at 93rd Street in the Upper Westside in New York City. When entering through to the east of Riverside Drive walking up the stairs you’re welcome with the view of the posterior of the statue. To be more precise the first that stand out is the horse’s imposing rear with muscular legs. The monument statue is surrounded with trees. Once you’re in front of this beautiful monument of Joan of Arc you appreciate it is elegance and simplicity. [tags: Art Analysis]

734 words
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Andy Goldsworthy and His Philosophy - Andy Goldsworthy, (1956--) is a British sculptor, photographer and moreover can be described as an environmental artist. He creates his work with no preconceived notion of what each creation will be. Instead, he relies on the environment for inspiration. His work becomes a document of the energy where he records a place in time and his experiment through exploration a transient addition to the surroundings. He is dependent on the weather and seasons as further inspiration. Goldsworthy is also sensitive to the natural process of the planet and his place upon it. [tags: enviromental artist]
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1152 words
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“The Pieta” by Michelangelo - Introduction Just as other works that reflect art, pieces in the category of fine arts serve the important message of passing certain messages or portraying a special feeling towards a particular person, function or activity. At times due to the nature of a particular work, it can become so valuable that its viewers cannot place a price on it. It is not the nature or texture of an art that qualifies it, but the appreciation by those who look at it (Lewis & Lewis, 2008). There are a number of artists involved in this field who used their works to pass specific information such as Leonardo da Vinci. [tags: Art Analysis ]
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1239 words
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Art: Classical Greece- Greek Temples Architecture - All civilizations that have ever existed in the world have had their own unique forms of art that distinguish each from the other. This has been evident in trends such as culture, religion, economics and even art and architecture. Art and architecture to a huge extent bring out the cultures of these civilizations in a way that it makes it easier for the current generation to understand the past. Some of these civilizations that have made history include classical Greece, Hellenistic Greece, Etruscan civilization, Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. [tags: hellenistic greece, roman empire]
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871 words
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Golden Age Greek Criticism of Henry Moore’s Reclining Woman - Golden Age Greek Criticism of Henry Moore’s Reclining Woman Both the shape and body of the Reclining Woman sculpture totally tear down our standards as Golden Age Greeks. Not at all can I make out whom this sculptor is representing. Sure I can make out the basic female figure. However the head is way too small in proportion the rest of the body. Maybe Henry Moore has not yet finished this piece. Did he make a mistake in the development of the chest area. This could be the case. If still this is a finish piece of “art” in no terms by us Greeks' is this considered Art. [tags: Essays Papers]

494 words
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Comparing the Three Statues of David - Comparing the Three Statues of David The pieces of art I will be comparing and contrasting are the three statues of David, by Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi), Michelangelo (Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni), and Bernini (Gian Lorenzo Bernini). The statues are modeled after the biblical David, who was destined to become the second king of Israel. Also most famously known as the slayer of the Philistine giant Goliath with a stone and a sling. The sculptures are all based on the same biblical hero, but differ from one another. [tags: Donatello Michelangelo Bernini Art Statues Essays]
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957 words
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Art of the Italian Renaissance - One of the greatest stories from the Italian Renaissance is the one of Fillipo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti. In 1401, the directors of the art of the Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral held a contest for artists; to create panels for a the doors on the east entrance (Kleiner, 560-2). Because the east doors faced the cathedral, the people thought it extremely prestigious to be able to participate in such a massive creation. After the first competition round, two finalists remained; Brunelleschi, an accomplished and experienced artist, and Ghiberti, a younger artist, but one with just as much talent. [tags: European Renaissance Essays]
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1378 words
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Ku War God: Hawaii after the Kona period - On the big island of Hawaii lays many secrets of traditional Hawaii that have long been forgotten by the republic that took over Hawaii after the Kona period. But many people still live up to these traditions in their homes and not wanting to overlook where their original family had come from. These traditions are based on stories and prayers that respect the primary four gods that make up the world. These gods help the people of Hawaii in succeeding the best out of life and honor them in returning them appraisal. [tags: Kuka-ili-moku, islands, god]
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1234 words
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Art and History Displayed at the Pompeii Exhibition at LACMA - The Pompeii exhibition at LACMA was an astounding visualization of history. The exhibition provided all sorts of objects; from sculptures, glass figures, painted art, and more. These art pieces specify the kind of life that was taking place in the Bay of Naples during the second century. As we know the cities around the Bay of Naples, which include Pompeii and Herculaneum, became tourist attractions when the cities were excavated after they were buried from the volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius. [tags: World History, Art]

829 words
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