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Echinochloa Crus Galli Descriptive Essay

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Description

Echinochloa crus-galli

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.

Panicum crus-galli (L.).

Barnyard millet (Australia), water grass (United States), cockspur grass (South Australia), song chang (Viet Nam).

An annual with more or less robust culms ascending to 105 cm from a geniculate base; spikelets 3-4 mm, crowded in the racemes, which are often branched; panicle dense and stiffly erect (Henty, 1969). The basal sheaths are commonly purplish, owing to the folding together of the sides of the sheaths (Burbidge, 1968).

A worldwide weed of cultivation in the tropics.

Sea-level to 2 500 m.

It will grow in a variety of soils in wet situations, but is usually found on silts and clays in ponds and depressions.

To control chemically, use a pre-emergence spray of 2,4-D sodium salt at 4.5 kg/ha of an 840 g AI/kg product (e.g. Hormicide). No wetting agent is required when used as a pre-emergent spray. Use a minimum of 340 litres of water per hectare. To kill young plants, spray with paraquat at 570 ml of a 200 g AI/I product (e.g. Gramoxone) per 200 litres water plus surfactant at 250 ml/200 l water. Spray to a point of run-off. For advanced plants give one spraying with 2.2- DPA at 2.3 kg of 740 g AI/kg product (e.g. Shirpon, Dowpon) plus 250 ml wetting agent per 200 litres water. Thoroughly wet the plants (Tilley, 1977). In the Ord River valley, northern Australia, E. colona and E. crus-galli were controlled with Stam F-34 (3,4 - dichloropropionanilide) at 3.25-7.5 kg active ingredient per hectare, two to three weeks after emergence.

Dry-matter and green-matter yields

At Laguna, the Philippines, Furoc and Javier (1976) gathered 3.88-11.07 t/ha green weeds (chiefly E. crus-galli) from a rice field from the first to the last weeding.

Its rapid germination and growth provide nutritious and succulent forage.

Its problem as a weed in rice.

Flowering is accelerated by short days (Evans, Wardlaw & Williams, 1964).

Excellent. It often grows in standing water and is the main weed in rice paddies throughout the world.

Genetics and reproduction

2n=36, 42, 48, 54, 72 (Fedorov, 1974).

It is the world's worst weed in paddy rice. It is a useful forage plant for all herbivorous animals and the grain is eaten by humans in times of want.

It is relished by stock everywhere, and where it does not interfere with cropping it is valued for grazing, especially for dry-season forage when other grasses on dry land have matured. It is an important grazing plant for buffaloes in Viet Nam. In the Philippines, Furoc and Javier (1976) considered that one farmer could collect sufficient weeds to feed four steers daily from 0.43 hectares of weed-infested rice.

The seed germinates with the sown rice, but cannot germinate in water deeper than 15 cm, so flooding the rice field with water to this depth will give the rice seedlings an advantage.

  • Crop index of the Purdue University. Information about distribution, ecology, use, yields etc.
  • Pest management and identification. Description and photographs
  • Fire Effects Information System. Information about distribution, occurrence, value, fire ecology etc. and link to other species
  • Herbicide-resistant weeds. Information about experiments, distribution and mechanism of resistance; references
  • Photographs of leaves and inflorescences; link to other weed photographs
  • Photographs of seedling emergence and inflorescences
  • Drawings of inflorescence and spikelet; links to other species
  • Postemergence control of E. crus-galli in corn. Article abstract

Grass genera of the world. Information about botany, ecology etc. of the Eriochloa genus; links to photographs and drawings

Seaman et al. 1968.

Other articles

Echinochloa crus-galli - The Full Wiki

Echinochloa crus-galli: Wikis

Echinochloa crus-galli is a type of wild grass originating from tropical Asia that was formerly classified as a type of panicum grass. It is commonly known as Cockspur (or Cockspur Grass ), Common Barnyard Grass. or simply "barnyard grass" (which may refer to any species of Echinochloa or the genus as a whole however). This plant can grow to 60" (1.5 m) in height and has long, flat leaves which are often purplish at the base. Most stems are upright, but some will spread out over the ground. Stems are flattened at the base. The seed heads are a distinctive feature, often purplish, with large millet-like seeds in crowded spikelets .

Considered one of the world's worst weeds. it reduces crop yields and causes forage crops to fail by removing up to 80% of the available soil nitrogen. The high levels of nitrates it accumulates can poison livestock. It acts as a host for several mosaic virus diseases. Heavy infestations can interfere with mechanical harvesting.

Individual plants can produce up to 40,000 seeds per year. Water, birds, insects, machinery, and animal feet disperse it, but contaminated seed is probably the most common dispersal method.

Description

Polymorphous coarse, tufted annual, tall and often weedy; culms erect to decumbent, 0.8-1.5 m tall, rather thick, branching at base; leaves flat, glabrous. elongate, 30-50 cm long, 1-2 cm broad, scabrous, slightly thickened at margin; ligules absent; sheaths smooth, lower ones often reddish; panicle 8-30 cm long, green or purple, exerted, somewhat nodding, densely branched, the branches to 5 cm long, erect or ascending, sessile ; spikelets 3-4 mm long, densely arranged on branches, ovoid, awnless. but move often long-awned, pale green to dull purple, short-bristly along veins; racemes spreading, ascending or appressed, the lower somewhat distant, as much as 10 cm long, sometimes branched; glumes and lower lemma minutely hairy on surface with longer more rigid hairs on veins; first glume about two-fifths as long as spikelet, deltoid, the second as long as the spikelet, short-awned; sterile lemma membranous, with a straight scabrous awn, 2-4 cm long or awnless; fertile lemma ovate-elliptic, acute, pale yellow, lustrous, smooth, 3-3.5 mm long. Fl. Aug.-Oct.; seed maturing Sept.-Oct. up to 40,000/plant. Var. crusgalli has long, somewhat spreading papillose cilia at the summits of the internodes and bases of the branches in the inflorescence and short, very thick papillose cilia along the lateral nerves of the 2nd glume, sterile lemma, and somewhat spreading spikes", and sterile lemmas with awns 0-10 mm long. [ 1 ]

Distribution

Barnyard grass commonly occurs throughout tropical Asia and Africa in fields and along roadsides, ditches, along railway lines, and in disturbed areas such as gravel pits and dumps. It also invades riverbanks and the shores of lakes and ponds. It occurs in all agricultural regions. This species is considered an invasive species in North America where it occurs throughout the continental United States. It is also found in southern Canada from British Columbia east to Newfoundland [ 2 ]. It was first spotted in the Great Lakes region in 1843 [ 3 ] .

Ranging from Boreal Moist to Wet through Tropical Very Dry to Moist forest Life zones. Adapted to nearly all types of wet places, this grass is often a common weed in paddy fields. roadsides, cultivated areas, and fallow fields. It grows on variety of wet sites such as ditches, low areas in fertile croplands and wet wastes, often growing in water. Succeeds in cool regions, but better adapted to areas where average annual temperature is 14-16°C. Not restricted by soil pH .

A warm-season grass used as cattle fodder and is sometimes cultivated for this purpose. It is also suited for silage. but not for hay. It is fed green to animals and provides fodder throughout the year; hay made from this plant can be kept up to 6 years. This grass is also used for reclamation of saline and alkaline areas, especially in Egypt.

The grain of some varieties is eaten by humans in times of scarcity and sometimes used for adulterating fennel. [ 4 ] The roots are boiled to cure indigestion in the Philippines. The young shoots are eaten as a vegetable. The plant extract is used in diseases of the spleen. Young shoots are eaten as a vegetable in Java. Reported to be preventative and tonic, barnyard grass is a folk remedy in India for carbuncles. haemorrhages. sores. spleen trouble, cancer and wounds .

In the Hisar district of the Indian state of Haryana the seeds Of this grass are commonly eaten with cultivated rice grains to make rice pudding or khir on Hindu fast-days.

Diseases and Pests

This grass is subject to brown spot, a fungal infection caused by Bipolaris oryzae .

Echinochloa crus-galli

Echinochloa crus-galli is a type of wild grass originating from tropical Asia that was formerly classified as a type of panicum grass. It is commonly known as Cockspur (or Cockspur Grass ), Common Barnyard Grass. or simply "barnyard grass" (which may refer to any species of Echinochloa or the genus as a whole however). This plant can grow to 60" (1.5 m) in height and has long, flat leaves which are often purplish at the base. Most stems are upright, but some will spread out over the ground. Stems are flattened at the base. The seed heads are a distinctive feature, often purplish, with large millet-like seeds in crowded spikelets.

Considered one of the world's worst weeds. it reduces crop yields and causes forage crops to fail by removing up to 80% of the available soil nitrogen. The high levels of nitrates it accumulates can poison livestock. It acts as a host for several mosaic virus diseases. Heavy infestations can interfere with mechanical harvesting.

Individual plants can produce up to 40,000 seeds per year. Water, birds, insects, machinery, and animal feet disperse it, but contaminated seed is probably the most common dispersal method.

Description

Polymorphous coarse, tufted annual, tall and often weedy; culms erect to decumbent, 0.8-1.5 m tall, rather thick, branching at base.

Leaves flat, glabrous, elongate, 30–50 cm long, 1–2 cm broad, scabrous, slightly thickened at margin; ligules absent; sheaths smooth, lower ones often reddish; panicle 8–30 cm long, green or purple, exerted, somewhat nodding, densely branched, the branches to 5 cm long, erect or ascending sessile;

Spikelets 3–4 mm long, densely arranged on branches, ovoid, awnless. but move often long-awned, pale green to dull purple, short-bristly along veins; racemes spreading, ascending or appressed, the lower somewhat distant, as much as 10 cm long, sometimes branched; glumes and lower lemma minutely hairy on surface with longer more rigid hairs on veins; first glume about two-fifths as long as spikelet, deltoid, the second as long as the spikelet, short-awned; sterile lemma membranous, with a straight scabrous awn, 2–4 cm long or awnless; fertile lemma ovate-elliptic, acute, pale yellow, lustrous, smooth, 3-3.5 mm long. Fl.

Aug.-Oct.; seed maturing Sept.-Oct. up to 40,000/plant. Var. crusgalli has long, somewhat spreading papillose cilia at the summits of the internodes and bases of the branches in the inflorescence and short, very thick papillose cilia along the lateral nerves of the 2nd glume, sterile lemma, and somewhat spreading spikes", and sterile lemmas with awns 0–10 mm long. [ 1 ]

Distribution

Barnyard grass commonly occurs throughout tropical Asia and Africa in fields and along roadsides, ditches, along railway lines, and in disturbed areas such as gravel pits and dumps. It also invades riverbanks and the shores of lakes and ponds. It occurs in all agricultural regions. This species is considered an invasive species in North America where it occurs throughout the continental United States. It is also found in southern Canada from British Columbia east to Newfoundland. [ 2 ] It was first spotted in the Great Lakes region in 1843. [ 3 ]

Ranging from Boreal Moist to Wet through Tropical Very Dry to Moist forest life zones. Adapted to nearly all types of wet places, this grass is often a common weed in paddy fields. roadsides, cultivated areas, and fallow fields. It grows on variety of wet sites such as ditches, low areas in fertile croplands and wet wastes, often growing in water. Succeeds in cool regions, but better adapted to areas where average annual temperature is 14-16°C. Not restricted by soil pH .

A warm-season grass used as cattle fodder and is sometimes cultivated for this purpose. It is also suited for silage. but not for hay. It is fed green to animals and provides fodder throughout the year; hay made from this plant can be kept up to 6 years. This grass is also used for reclamation of saline and alkaline areas, especially in Egypt.

The grain of some varieties is eaten by humans in times of scarcity and sometimes used for adulterating fennel. [ 4 ] The roots are boiled to cure indigestion in the Philippines. The young shoots are eaten as a vegetable. The plant extract is used in diseases of the spleen. Young shoots are eaten as a vegetable in Java. Reported to be preventative and tonic, barnyard grass is a folk remedy in India for carbuncles, haemorrhages, sores. spleen trouble, cancer and wounds.

In the Hisar district of the Indian state of Haryana the seeds Of this grass are commonly eaten with cultivated rice grains to make rice pudding or khir on Hindu fast-days.

Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta ), a domesticated form of E. crus-galli. is cultivated on a small scale in Japan, Korea and China.

Diseases and Pests

This grass is subject to brown spot, a fungal infection caused by Bipolaris oryzae .

Echinochloa crus-galli Pictures, Echinochloa crus-galli Images

Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli )

Synonyms:
Digitaria hispidula (Retz.) Willd.
Echinochloa caudata Roshev.
Echinochloa commutata Schult.
Echinochloa crus-corvi (L.) P.Beauv.
Echinochloa crus-pavonis var. austrojaponensis (Ohwi) S.L.Dai
Echinochloa crus-pavonis var. breviseta (Döll) S.L.Dai
Echinochloa crus-pavonis var. praticola (Ohwi) S.L.Dai
Echinochloa disticha St.-Lag. nom. illeg.
Echinochloa dubia Roem. & Schult.
Echinochloa echinata (Willd.) Nakai
Echinochloa formosensis (Ohwi) S.L.Dai
Echinochloa glabrescens Kossenko
Echinochloa hispida (E.Forst.) Schult.
Echinochloa macrocarpa var. aristata Vasinger
Echinochloa macrocarpa var. mutica Vasinger
Echinochloa macrocorvi Nakai
Echinochloa madagascariensis Mez
Echinochloa micans Kossenko
Echinochloa muricata var. occidentalis Wiegand
Echinochloa occidentalis (Wiegand) Rydb.
Echinochloa paracorvi Nakai
Echinochloa persistentia Z.S.Diao
Echinochloa pungens var. occidentalis (Wiegand) Fernald & Griscom
Echinochloa spiralis Vasinger
Echinochloa zelayensis (Kunth) Schult.
Milium crus-galli (L.) Moench
Oplismenus crus-galli (L.) Dumort.
Oplismenus dubius (Roem. & Schult.) Kunth
Oplismenus echinatus (Willd.) Kunth
Oplismenus limosus J.Presl
Oplismenus zelayensis Kunth
Orthopogon crus-galli (L.) Spreng.
Orthopogon echinatus (Willd.) Spreng.
Panicum alectorocnemum St.-Lag. nom. illeg.
Panicum alectromerum Dulac nom. illeg.
Panicum corvi Thunb. nom. illeg.
Panicum corvipes Stokes nom. illeg.
Panicum cristagalli Gromov ex Trautv.
Panicum crus-galli L.
Panicum cruscorvi L.
Panicum echinatum Willd.
Panicum goiranii Rouy
Panicum grossum Salisb. nom. illeg.
Panicum hispidum G.Forst.
Panicum limosum J.Presl ex Nees
Panicum oryzetorum Sickenb. nom. illeg.
Panicum scindens Nees ex Steud.
Panicum zelayense (Kunth) Steud.
Pennisetum crus-galli (L.) Baumg.

Echinochloa crus-galli

(Echinochloa crus-galli )
Photo no. 9431

Echinochloa crus-galli

(Echinochloa crus-galli )
Photo no. 9428

Photo no. 9427

Echinochloa crus-galli explained

Echinochloa crus-galli explained

Echinochloa crus-galli is a type of wild grass originating from tropical Asia that was formerly classified as a type of panicum grass. It is commonly known as cockspur (or cockspur grass ), barnyard millet. Japanese millet. water grass. common barnyard grass. or simply "barnyard grass" (which may refer to any species of Echinochloa or the genus as a whole however). This plant can grow to 60" (1.5 m) in height and has long, flat leaves which are often purplish at the base. Most stems are upright, but some will spread out over the ground. Stems are flattened at the base. The seed heads are a distinctive feature, often purplish, with large millet-like seeds in crowded spikelets.

Considered one of the world's worst weed s, it reduces crop yields and causes forage crops to fail by removing up to 80% of the available soil nitrogen. The high levels of nitrates it accumulates can poison livestock. It acts as a host for several mosaic virus diseases. Heavy infestations can interfere with mechanical harvesting.

Individual plants can produce up to 40,000 seeds per year. Water, birds, insects, machinery, and animal feet disperse it, but contaminated seed is probably the most common dispersal method.

Description

Polymorphous coarse, tufted annual, tall and often weedy; culm s erect to decumbent. 0.8-1.5 m tall, rather thick, branching at base.

Leaves flat, glabrous. elongate, 30–50 cm long, 1–2 cm broad, scabrous, slightly thickened at margin; ligule s absent; sheaths smooth, lower ones often reddish; panicle 8–30 cm long, green or purple, exerted, somewhat nodding, densely branched, the branches to 5 cm long, erect or ascending sessile ;

Spikelets 3–4 mm long, densely arranged on branches, ovoid, awn less, but move often long-awned, pale green to dull purple, short-bristly along veins; racemes spreading, ascending or appressed, the lower somewhat distant, as much as 10 cm long, sometimes branched; glume s and lower lemma minutely hairy on surface with longer more rigid hairs on veins; first glume about two-fifths as long as spikelet, deltoid, the second as long as the spikelet, short-awned; sterile lemma membranous, with a straight scabrous awn, 2–4 cm long or awnless; fertile lemma ovate-elliptic, acute, pale yellow, lustrous, smooth, 3-3.5 mm long. Fl.

Aug.-Oct.; seed maturing Sept.-Oct. up to 40,000/plant. Var. crusgalli has long, somewhat spreading papillose cilia at the summits of the internodes and bases of the branches in the inflorescence and short, very thick papillose cilia along the lateral nerves of the 2nd glume, sterile lemma, and somewhat spreading spikes", and sterile lemmas with awns 0–10 mm long. [1]

Distribution

Barnyard grass commonly occurs throughout tropical Asia and Africa in fields and along roadsides, ditches, along railway lines, and in disturbed areas such as gravel pits and dumps. It also invades riverbanks and the shores of lakes and ponds. It occurs in all agricultural regions. This species is considered an invasive species in North America where it occurs throughout the continental United States. It is also found in southern Canada from British Columbia east to Newfoundland. [2] It was first spotted in the Great Lakes region in 1843. [3]

Ranging from Boreal Moist to Wet through Tropical Very Dry to Moist forest life zone s. Adapted to nearly all types of wet places, this grass is often a common weed in paddy field s, roadsides, cultivated areas, and fallow fields. It grows on variety of wet sites such as ditches, low areas in fertile croplands and wet wastes, often growing in water. Succeeds in cool regions, but better adapted to areas where average annual temperature is 14-16 °C. Not restricted by soil pH .

A warm-season grass used as cattle fodder and is sometimes cultivated for this purpose. It is also suited for silage. but not for hay. It is fed green to animals and provides fodder throughout the year; hay made from this plant can be kept up to 6 years. This grass is also used for reclamation of saline and alkaline areas, especially in Egypt.

The grain of some varieties is eaten by humans in times of scarcity and sometimes used for adulterating fennel. [4] The roots are boiled to cure indigestion in the Philippines. The young shoots are eaten as a vegetable. The plant extract is used in diseases of the spleen. Young shoots are eaten as a vegetable in Java. Reported to be preventative and tonic, barnyard grass is a folk remedy in India for carbuncles. haemorrhages. sores. spleen trouble, cancer and wounds .

Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta ), a domesticated form of E. crus-galli. is cultivated on a small scale in Japan, Korea and China.

Diseases and pests

This grass is subject to brown spot, a fungal infection caused by Bipolaris oryzae .

Common names Punjabi dialect forms