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Careing Essay Research Paper In class we

Careing Essay Research Paper In class we

Careing Essay, Research Paper

In class we have just completed Milton Mayeroff book On Caring. Mayeroff discusses many of life?s philosophies, and the meaning and importance of caring as well as being cared for. He deals with peoples basic morals towards caring and being cared for in many situations. Caring is ?feeling and exhibiting concern and empathy for others. (Encarta ?99?). I feel that caring is being able to be honest, trust, and also being able to stay strong with courage. All these aspects play a large role in a person growth over years with their family, and friends as well as associates. Caring is often taken for granted, but Mayeroff clearly defines the true meaning of caring in his book. He really makes you recognize who in your life has played a serious role, and how you know if you are truly caring for another.

In Mayeroffs book he writes on over thirty topics of caring. I have chosen five topics that I feel are the most significant in his book On Caring. First I believe that honesty is the core essential in caring for another. Honesty is present in caring as something positive, and not as a matter of not doing something, not telling lies of not deliberately deceiving others. Mayeroff (p.g. 25). The only way to be able to build a solid relationship with another person is to be honest. I feel that this is necessary in a relationship; if you are not honest you will not only cheat yourself but others as well. The truth hurts but it is always better to deal with the truth then to be deceived and have to learn how other people deal in stressful situations. I feel personally that this is the core essential ingredient in a caring relationship. Honesty is the best policy? Mayeroff (p.g. 26).

The second aspect of caring I want to deal with is trust, and how I feel it relates to one of the five major aspect of caring. Caring involves trusting the other to grow in its own time and in its own way. It appreciates the independent existence of the other, that the other is other. Mayeroff (p.g. 27). Being able to trust someone is a key essential in family, friendship, and in marriage. Trust is not something to be learned, but is something that is developed over time. In caring for another person I trust him to make mistakes and to learn from them. Mayeroff (p.g. 27). This is a prime example of how trust is gained in relationships with people. No one has a perfect relationship, we are human and make mistakes but we are also smart enough to learn from our mistakes. But not being able to trust someone can destroy a relationship. We show lack of trust by trying to dominate and force the other into a mold, or by requiring guarantees as to the outcome, or even by ?caring? too much. Mayeroff (p.g. 27).

The next two topics I am going to discuss go hand and hand, hope and courage. Hope is dependent upon courage, without courage there is no hope. Not to be confused with wishful thinking and unfounded expectations. Such hope is not an expression of the insufficiency of the present in comparison with the sufficiency of a hoped-for future; it is rather an expression of the plenitude of the present, a present alive with a sense of the possible. Mayeroff (p.g. 32). Mayeroff wants to clarify the difference of when you hope something good happens and the true meaning of hope for someone?s well being for example. Hope in turn gives a significant presents to the future for someone. A person that is terminally ill there is the hope for a cure threw scientific medicines, and new breakthroughs with cutting edge technology. By contrast, where there is no possibility of new growth, there is despair. Mayeroff (p.g. 33).

Only does courage make hope possible, it is equally true that hope makes for courage?Lack of hope, on the other hand, eats away any sense of worthiness. Mayeroff (p.g. 35). Courage is being able to go into the unknown and not turn back. Such as a boy going threw manhood or even a woman having a baby. Anything you do in life is threw decisions and actions that you make, and in turn what ever you cause in your life is what you are effected by. Courage plays a large role in caring; being able to be by your friend threw trying circumstances. The greater the sense of going into the unknown, the more courage is called for in caring. Mayeroff (p.g. 35).

The last aspect of caring which I feel ties all other aspects together is caring for myself. In being able to care for yourself you must be able to see yourself from the inside as you appear from the outside. Mayeroff (p.g.59). The way you care for other people you must care for yourself. You must not sell yourself short at the cost of other people, you have to give you self the same chance to grow and be your own person. You have to be responsive to your own needs to grow and not endanger yourself. In helping the other to grow, I grow as well. Mayeroff (p.g. 59).

Hurricane Floyd has impacted the whole entire eastern seaboard leaving massive flooding and has destroyed so many homes, as well as claimed several lives. But what I feel so amazing is how so many people can pull together in a time of crises. Even on a national level people hope for each other?s well being in times of natural disasters. I feel this is true because people share a common bond when they are threatened. People need to have a lot of courage when a hurricane the size of Texas is heading straight for them. This just goes to show you how people can all pull together because they care.

In Elizabeth Kubler-Ross address to Union College she explains that she works with dying patients. She explains in her address that all her patients consistently tell her that they wish they did more with their lives. They wish they did not stress themselves over such petty problems as well as wasted so much time with them. It is not the sunny days that make human beings out of you or that give you strength of faith of trust or love, that it is the moments of hardship in life that make you a man or a woman. Kubler-Ross (Commencement Address; Union College). Being able to live does not mean giving your children materialistic items for example, but giving them memories that they can cherish for the rest of their lives. The biggest thing in life is if you have lived a full life. The only way you are capable of doing this. is if you have had the courage to live your life. Kubler-Ross. The only way to make this possible is to do what you want to do, see what you want to see. Experience new things and do not be afraid to experience new feelings. You only live once so live your life to the fullest and do not get worked up over nonsense, because in the end it will be the least of your worries. Ms. Kubler-Ross has had a lot of insight into life?s experiences threw her patients. You should learn from peoples mistakes so do not sell yourself short. This all has to do with caring for your self, its up to you to decide your future.

The five aspects of caring I have discussed I feel are the most significant. This is because without one of them you cannot have a successful caring relationship. The hurricane is a prime example of how courage is shown in people in times of natural disasters. Also in Kubler-Ross?s address you can see another perfect example of how caring for your self is vital in being able to enjoy your life to its fullest. Mayeroff exemplifies caring in every possible aspect.

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Careing Essay, Research Paper

In class we have just completed Milton Mayeroff book On Caring. Mayeroff discusses many of life?s philosophies, and the meaning and importance of caring as well as being cared for. He deals with peoples basic morals towards caring and being cared for in many situations. Caring is ?feeling and exhibiting concern and empathy for others. (Encarta ?99?). I feel that caring is being able to be honest, trust, and also being able to stay strong with courage. All these aspects play a large role in a person growth over years with their family, and friends as well as associates. Caring is often taken for granted, but Mayeroff clearly defines the true meaning of caring in his book. He really makes you recognize who in your life has played a serious role, and how you know if you are truly caring for another.

In Mayeroffs book he writes on over thirty topics of caring. I have chosen five topics that I feel are the most significant in his book On Caring. First I believe that honesty is the core essential in caring for another. Honesty is present in caring as something positive, and not as a matter of not doing something, not telling lies of not deliberately deceiving others. Mayeroff (p.g. 25). The only way to be able to build a solid relationship with another person is to be honest. I feel that this is necessary in a relationship; if you are not honest you will not only cheat yourself but others as well. The truth hurts but it is always better to deal with the truth then to be deceived and have to learn how other people deal in stressful situations. I feel personally that this is the core essential ingredient in a caring relationship. Honesty is the best policy? Mayeroff (p.g. 26).

The second aspect of caring I want to deal with is trust, and how I feel it relates to one of the five major aspect of caring. Caring involves trusting the other to grow in its own time and in its own way. It appreciates the independent existence of the other, that the other is other. Mayeroff (p.g. 27). Being able to trust someone is a key essential in family, friendship, and in marriage. Trust is not something to be learned, but is something that is developed over time. In caring for another person I trust him to make mistakes and to learn from them. Mayeroff (p.g. 27). This is a prime example of how trust is gained in relationships with people. No one has a perfect relationship, we are human and make mistakes but we are also smart enough to learn from our mistakes. But not being able to trust someone can destroy a relationship. We show lack of trust by trying to dominate and force the other into a mold, or by requiring guarantees as to the outcome, or even by ?caring? too much. Mayeroff (p.g. 27).

The next two topics I am going to discuss go hand and hand, hope and courage. Hope is dependent upon courage, without courage there is no hope. Not to be confused with wishful thinking and unfounded expectations. Such hope is not an expression of the insufficiency of the present in comparison with the sufficiency of a hoped-for future; it is rather an expression of the plenitude of the present, a present alive with a sense of the possible. Mayeroff (p.g. 32). Mayeroff wants to clarify the difference of when you hope something good happens and the true meaning of hope for someone?s well being for example. Hope in turn gives a significant presents to the future for someone. A person that is terminally ill there is the hope for a cure threw scientific medicines, and new breakthroughs with cutting edge technology. By contrast, where there is no possibility of new growth, there is despair. Mayeroff (p.g. 33).

Only does courage make hope possible, it is equally true that hope makes for courage?Lack of hope, on the other hand, eats away any sense of worthiness. Mayeroff (p.g. 35). Courage is being able to go into the unknown and not turn back. Such as a boy going threw manhood or even a woman having a baby. Anything you do in life is threw decisions and actions that you make, and in turn what ever you cause in your life is what you are effected by. Courage plays a large role in caring; being able to be by your friend threw trying circumstances. The greater the sense of going into the unknown, the more courage is called for in caring. Mayeroff (p.g. 35).

The last aspect of caring which I feel ties all other aspects together is caring for myself. In being able to care for yourself you must be able to see yourself from the inside as you appear from the outside. Mayeroff (p.g.59). The way you care for other people you must care for yourself. You must not sell yourself short at the cost of other people, you have to give you self the same chance to grow and be your own person. You have to be responsive to your own needs to grow and not endanger yourself. In helping the other to grow, I grow as well. Mayeroff (p.g. 59).

Hurricane Floyd has impacted the whole entire eastern seaboard leaving massive flooding and has destroyed so many homes, as well as claimed several lives. But what I feel so amazing is how so many people can pull together in a time of crises. Even on a national level people hope for each other?s well being in times of natural disasters. I feel this is true because people share a common bond when they are threatened. People need to have a lot of courage when a hurricane the size of Texas is heading straight for them. This just goes to show you how people can all pull together because they care.

In Elizabeth Kubler-Ross address to Union College she explains that she works with dying patients. She explains in her address that all her patients consistently tell her that they wish they did more with their lives. They wish they did not stress themselves over such petty problems as well as wasted so much time with them. It is not the sunny days that make human beings out of you or that give you strength of faith of trust or love, that it is the moments of hardship in life that make you a man or a woman. Kubler-Ross (Commencement Address; Union College). Being able to live does not mean giving your children materialistic items for example, but giving them memories that they can cherish for the rest of their lives. The biggest thing in life is if you have lived a full life. The only way you are capable of doing this. is if you have had the courage to live your life. Kubler-Ross. The only way to make this possible is to do what you want to do, see what you want to see. Experience new things and do not be afraid to experience new feelings. You only live once so live your life to the fullest and do not get worked up over nonsense, because in the end it will be the least of your worries. Ms. Kubler-Ross has had a lot of insight into life?s experiences threw her patients. You should learn from peoples mistakes so do not sell yourself short. This all has to do with caring for your self, its up to you to decide your future.

The five aspects of caring I have discussed I feel are the most significant. This is because without one of them you cannot have a successful caring relationship. The hurricane is a prime example of how courage is shown in people in times of natural disasters. Also in Kubler-Ross?s address you can see another perfect example of how caring for your self is vital in being able to enjoy your life to its fullest. Mayeroff exemplifies caring in every possible aspect.

Analysis Research Paper

Tips on writing analysis research papers

There are various types of research papers. Each one has its own unique objective and specifications. Understanding the difference between them is quite important when it comes to handling academic research paper assignments. An analysis research paper. also known as an analytical research paper, is one type of research paper which is assigned very often to students of all levels. This type of research paper improves the students’ knowledge of the topic and gives them a much deeper understanding of the subject or object of study.

Writing analysis research papers will not be very difficult if you know how to go about it. As you might be aware, the word ‘analysis’ stands for the in-depth study of an object. While analyzing a topic, for the purpose of writing a research paper, you will learn much more than what you are taught in class or what you have learned from your interaction with the subject or object, so far. That is exactly the reason why analysis research papers are much preferred for academic assessments. There are certain things which you must know while you are handling a research paper of analytical nature.

1. Analyzing a topic will require you to break it down to its finest elements. This will be time-consuming and tiring. Hence while choosing the topic, always consider the deadline and pick one that can be handled within the given time, without making it too hectic for you.
2. The research must have a focal point which would form the base of the analysis. This must be determined before you start the research as most topics can be analyzed from various angles. If you are not sure of the angle from which you wish to analyze the topic, chances are that you would stray off to irrelevant realms and fail to make any sense of the analysis.

3. An analysis research paper must answer the possible questions which can come up as a part of the study and give a conclusive report of the topic of study.
4. The report presented must be duly justified with as much detailing as is necessary and also with substantial evidence.

5. The hypothesis you begin with might not match your report as detailed studies often bring out unexpected results. If that happens, you must rewrite your thesis to match the report. You should not present a research paper where the thesis does not match the conclusion.

Analysis research papers are meant to give students a very thorough understanding of the object of the study. It is also used to evaluate the students’ knowledge of the topic. Without keeping aside enough time for it, you will not be able to manage the project efficiently. The focus on what you want to bring out is absolutely necessary while handling such a project.

If you are short of time or are facing multiple assignments, all to be handed over around the same time, there is no need to despair. We have expert academic writers who can prepare outstanding assignments for you as per your requirements. We understand how pressurizing it is to have to handle academic assignments and are happy to be of help. Your academic assignments would be safe with our writers in terms of quality and confidentiality.

PAPER PRESENTATION TIPS

PAPER PRESENTATION TIPS

It is a challenge for anyone to summarize and present a journal paper so that your class colleagues gain from the experience. Keys to success are in appropriate selection of the research article, the approach and manner of presentation, and your overall state of preparation.

The research should be recent (2000 - present), and fit within the topics appropriate for this class---Physiological Ecology (see class outline)

� Select a research article with data that evolves from a clear hypothesis.

� Do not select a review article. Avoid Scientific American, American Scientist, Bioscience and other condensed-topic journals.

� The article should contain some quantitative findings. Descriptive studies may be more difficult to interpret and present than comparative or experimental studies.

Chose a research article y ou can [eventually] understand.

� This should not be interpreted as "simple" or "easy." It means that eventually you must understand the work well enough to explain things to others.

� At presentation time, your knowledge base must go beyond the journal article, thus allowing you to answer questions that interrelate the specific research findings into the broader discipline.

� Put things in the simplest terms and avoid acronyms or explain them when used.

� Don't reject an article because of special terminology; just be sure you learn any terms with which you are unfamiliar. Your instructors are willing to help.

� If at some point you realize you are "lost," seek help or consider another article. Don't be afraid to say, "I don't know." However, an over reliance on this costs you credibility.

Select a well written piece of research. (Not every article fits this criterion.)

� Is the abstract clear? Does it provide a brief statement of problem, outline of methods, and highlights of results?

� Are the tables and graphic presentations focused and clear?

� Does the author utilize the discussion section to expand on how the results relate to other work and the significance of the work?

You do NOT have to present everything that is in a paper, as long as the data/ideas that you leave out are not critical to understand what you do present.

Presentations must be made using the aid of Microsoft PowerPoint.

  • It is my assumption that you can, and will, be able to utilize this tool.
  • Keep in mind that the focus is on the science . and that PowerPoint is only an aid.

Models and other demonstration approaches are often helpful.

Talk with enough volume to be heard. Face the audience, rather than the board or screen.

Whatever you present must be large enough to be read by anyone in the classroom.

� Generally, a Power Pt. slide made directly from a journal article table or graph is too small, and often it is too "busy."

� Consider developing your own graph or table in order to eliminate excess data that you have no intention of explaining.

� You need to explain the significance of any data you are presenting.

3.Approaches to Presenting Findings

Early in your presentation, tell the specific problem that was the focus of the research and/or the hypothesis that was tested. What question(s) was addressed?

Give the basics of the experimental design and methods of data collection.

� What comparisons were made (controls)? What parameters were actually measured?

� Do not go into excess detail on methods or you leave no time for results.

� Explain unique or unusual conditions, instruments, or timing of data collection.

As you focus on the results presented in the paper, keep in mind that everything is not of equal importance. Focus on the key outcomes! Not all the data or parts of the paper have to be presented.

For the Results section, p resenting tables or graphs can be helpful.

� Seldom can you take a whole table or graph directly from the paper and present it in a meaningful way. As previously stated, usually there is too much data in a table and the size is too small for projection. It may be better to make your own table just showing the data you want to discuss that pertains to the point you want to make. In either case, you must specifically draw attention to a few major point, trends, etc.

� Any graph or table presented to the class should have a title. Start by explaining the graph axes or table rows and columns.

� Graph lines must be identified.

Summarize key points. Make a list if it will be helpful.

Draw any final conclusion that is warranted from the research article.

� Do the findings have significance or implication to other organisms?

� Can any generalizations, predictions, or extrapolations be made from the research?

� What deficiencies do you see in the experimental design?

Be prepared to answer questions both about the specifics of the research article and how the findings are relevant to understanding ecological/physiological interrelationships.

There is no substitute for being prepared. Spend the time necessary to know what you are talking about and to present that information in a way that focuses on the salient points. Practice the presentation in its entirety, including use of visual aids, preferably aloud. This practice will build confidence and provide for checking the presentation time. Most people try to cover too much material for the time limit.

How to Start a Research Paper

How to Start a Research Paper

Now when you know what is a research paper it’s time to know how to start a research paper. Research paper writing begins with a writing assignment the instructor gives you. This assignment may be specific, or it may be general. It may assign you a research topic and point you in the direction the research should take. Or it may offer a great deal of flexibility, allowing you to pick your topic and stage your own research. The assignment serves as a road map to what you must do. It is your first clue to what your professor expects of you. If you have a thorough understanding of the assignment, you will be better able to deliver what is expected of you.

Tackling a research paper is, in many ways, like preparing to run a race.You have no hope of finishing among the leaders if you have no idea where the finishing line is or how to get there. That may sound sophomoric but the vast majority of research papers that end in failure do so because the writer proceeded with no clear understanding of what was expected and delivered something off the mark.

The first step you take in tackling the paper should point you in the direction of a successful finish. You need to know what is expected of you and how to prepare to deliver it. By understanding where you need to end up, you will spare yourself a lot of trial and error in writing.

First Steps in Writing a Research Paper:
  1. Interpret the assignment given.
  2. Identify your instructor’s the expectations and grading criteria.
  3. Analyze the audience of your paper.
  4. Choose a topic.
  5. Write a thesis statement.
  6. Write a proposal.
Step 1: Interpreting the Assignment

Knowing precisely what you need to produce is the first step to producing a perfect paper. Not only will it spare you the frustration of assembling material that may not be appropriate to the assignment, but it will assure you of a better grade. One of the first questions on an instructor’s mind is: Did this student understand the assignment? A student’s ability to deliver what the assignment requests shows the teacher or professor that the student possesses the skills to properly interpret instructions and identify expectations.

Research papers typically begin with an assignment that identifies your teacher’s expectations and provides the information you need to know to complete the assignment.

What You Should Know before You Start

What is the purpose of the assignment? What does your instructor expect you to learn?

  • Is there an assigned topic? Can you choose your own?
  • What kinds of sources should you use?
  • How many sources should you use?
  • Are print and online sources equally acceptable?
  • When is the paper due?
  • How long should it be?
  • How should the paper be formatted?
  • How should bibliographic information be presented?
  • What are the qualities of a paper that gets an A, B, C, or D?

You cannot produce a good research paper if you do not know what “goodness”means to your professor or instructor who will be evaluating it. More important are those expectations that actually tell you what you are supposed to do. Writing assignments are often written very deliberately to test how well students read, interpret, and respond to the expectations that are outlined. Your professor may want to know how well you can summarize new ideas and complex material, or whether you can present a logical argument to support an opinion or advocate an idea. Another assignment might spell out how you should conduct your research by specifying the types of sources you should consult. Other instructors may use words like analyze, discuss, or investigate to describe what is expected. Students should not take these words lightly because they have specific meanings. You must learn to recognize the goals and expectations in an assignment.

When you receive a research paper assignment, read it thoroughly and be prepared to ask your professor about anything that is unclear to you. Make a list of the stated goals and expectations. Though you already have these on the assignment sheet but writing them down will make them concreted in your mind and help you to remember them. If you receive the criteria for how your research paper will be graded, examine them as closely as you do the assignment to determine what you are expected to do in order to achieve the grade you want. If your instructor does not provide the grading criteria, ask what they are. An example of typical university grading criteria appears below:

Step 2: Identifying Grade Criteria

A Grade: A research paper that merits an A demonstrates a generally high degree of competence and control of language. Typically, such a paper meets all of the following criteria:

  • Responds to the assignment thoroughly, thoughtfully, and with insight or originality.
  • Demonstrates strong reading comprehension of the assigned texts.
  • Is well-developed and supports analysis with effective textual evidence, reasons, examples, and details.
  • Is well-focused and well-organized, demonstrating strong control over the conventions of analytical writing.
  • Demonstrates facility with language, using effective vocabulary and sentence variety.
  • Demonstrates strong control of grammar, the rules of usage, and mechanics of standard English but may have minor errors.

B Grade: A research paper that receives a B is written in a clearly competent manner and displays generally consistent control of language. Typically, such a paper meets all of the following criteria:

  • Responds to all elements of the assignment competently and thoughtfully.
  • Demonstrates an adequate understanding of the readings.
  • Is adequately developed, using appropriate textual evidences, reasons, examples, and details.
  • Is focused and effectively organized, demonstrating control of the conventions of analytical writing.
  • Demonstrates strong language competence and uses appropriate vocabulary and sentence variety.
  • Shows good control of grammar, the rules of usage, and mechanics of standard English, although it may have some errors and minor lapses in quality.

C Grade: A research paper that earns a grade of C demonstrates some competence but is limited in one or more of the following ways:

  • Does not address all parts of the writing assignment.
  • Does not demonstrate an adequate understanding of the readings.
  • Is thinly developed, often relying on assertions with little textual evidence or few relevant reasons, examples, and details.
  • Is adequately focused and/or adequately organized, but connections between the parts could be more explicit.
  • Demonstrates limited facility with language and minimal sentence variety.
  • Demonstrates inconsistent control of grammar, usage, and the mechanics of writing.

Grade of D: A research paper receives a grade of D if it has one or more of the following flaws:

  • Is unclear and/or seriously limited in its response to the writing assignment.
  • Demonstrates a limited reading or misreading of the texts.
  • Is unfocused and/or disorganized, demonstrating little control of the conventions of analytical writing.
  • Demonstrates serious errors in the use of language, which may interfere with meaning.
  • Demonstrates serious errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics, which may interfere with meaning.

Grade of F: A research paper receives a grade of F when it:

  • Demonstrates little or no ability to develop an organized response to the writing assignment.
  • Contains severe writing errors that persistently obscure meaning.

Make sure to note any specific information or ideas that the assignment asks you to discuss in your research paper. It helps to ask any questions you may have, and take notes. Any information you receive will help you in your pursuit of the “perfect” research paper.

Make every effort to ensure that you understand what your professor is requesting. That way, you know what to deliver.

Types of Writing Assignments

Writing assignments in schools and universities are not created equal. The approach you take to receive an A in a paper written for one class will not necessary work well for you in another. You should expect that any research paper assignment, whether it is given at the high school or college level, will differ according to the class you are taking and the expectations of your professor. Even within a class, a professor’s expectations are likely to change from one assignment to another. Getting a good grade is not a function of “psyching out” your professor. It is a function of understanding the assignment and what you are being expected to do.

High School Research Paper

On a high school level, research papers are generally assigned to test an ability to look up information and explain it adequately in student’s own words. Here is a list of the kinds of assignments typically given in high school and what they mean:

  • Summary. An abbreviated account of a larger article, book, or other work. Examples: Book report,movie review, or a summary of something you read in the news or saw on TV.
  • Description. A detailed account of what things look like. Descriptions that help readers “see” what you are talking about are especially useful to clarify events, conditions, or concepts that might be unfamiliar to the reader. Good descriptions make appropriate use of adjectives and adverbs, metaphors, similes, and examples to build readers’ understanding. Examples: A history report about life in another time or a geography report about the culture and industries in another country.
  • Explanation. A description that tells why certain conditions exist or certain events occur. Explanations attempt to identify the cause or causes that create an effect. They attempt to answer the question,“Why”? Examples: A science report.
  • Process. A description of conditions that must exist and actions that must be taken to produce an outcome. Examples: Instructions someone should follow to do something successfully, such as following the steps in an experiment, or directions to a destination.
  • Narrative. A story about something that happened. Narratives are often told in chronological order with a beginning, middle, and end. Examples:“What I Did on My Summer Vacation”
College and University Research Paper

At the college and university levels, a much more is expected from students. Writing assignments become more complex. Instead of simply asking you to summarize or describe something, the assignment typically will present you with a challenge. Often, too, the assignment is not even called an “assignment.” Instead, it is called a “writing prompt,” meaning that the purpose of the assignment is to “prompt” your thinking and elicit a thorough written response from you. Writing prompts usually call upon the writer to use a combination of the approaches learned in high school (those listed above), as well as employ other approaches and strategies to advance new ideas, opinions, and arguments about the topic
under discussion.

The path to producing a perfect research paper begins with understanding what those goals are and how to identify them in the assignment. Below is a list of terms that professors often use in writing prompts and what they mean:

  • Analyze relationships among facts, trends, theories, and issues. Point out their significant likes and differences and tell why they are meaningful.
  • Argue in defense of (or against) a concept, opinion, position, thesis, or point of view. Strong arguments apply logic and point out fallacies, errors, and “fuzzy” thinking.
  • Categorize or classify items, concepts, or events by sorting them in sets of predefined qualities or conditions according to their similarities.
  • Compare and contrast two or more events, ideas, or opinions by identifying their similarities and/or differences.
  • Define the meaning of an unfamiliar term, phrase, or concept by describing the concept behind it.
  • Discuss the implications of your research or various points of view on your topic by looking at different sides of the issue and pointing out their merits.
  • Examine a topic in minute detail by describing it as if it were under a microscope.
  • Illustrate a concept by using many significant details to describe it.
  • Interpret a set of facts or events by explaining their significance and importance to your reader, or to other audiences with other needs or interests.
  • Give your opinion by telling what you think about the topic and provide an explanation about why you think it.
  • Reason (the verb, not the noun) by presenting the logical thought process required to support a specific conclusion.
  • Synthesize information from a variety of sources to support a single thesis, opinion, or conclusion.
  • Theorize by presenting your own hypothesis, or best guess, about why things are the way they are.
Step 3: Analyzing the Audience

A key test of a good research paper is how well it resonates with your audience. It is useful, before you begin, to create a profile of a theoretical reader.

Rather than focus on your professor as your audience, assume you are writing for intelligent people of the same age and educational level as yourself. Assume that they have not read the material you have researched and that you will need to provide enough background to ensure that your audience will understand and respond to your arguments. You will determine how to present your information and ideas according to the effect you hope they will have on the reader.

What You Should Know about Members of Your Audience
  • Approximate age.
  • Approximate educational level.
  • Experiences they have in common.
  • Why they would be interested in your topic.
  • How much the average reader should already know about your topic.
  • What questions a reader is likely to have.
  • How that reader might react to your arguments.
Step 4: Choosing a Topic

Topics for some research papers will be assigned to you by your instructor, along with very specific requirements that you must follow in completing the paper. Others allow you to choose the topic you will research.

Many writing assignments are deliberately open-ended, allowing students to pick their own topics and pursue their own research. If your assignment is open-ended,you will have lots of latitude to research a topic that interests you, based on whatever guidelines or parameters your instructor specifies. The challenge then becomes finding a good research paper topic and devising a thesis and arguments to support it.

Below is an example of an open-ended writing assignment from a freshman English Composition class. It was designed to determine how effectively students can identify a topic, construct their own thesis statements, find sources to support the thesis, and use that research to present arguments their audience would find convincing.

Example open-ended assignment:

Pick an issue that interests you and find at least three newspaper articles or editorials from different sources that express differing points of view on the issue.Produce a five-page paper, including four pages plus a Works Cited page, that analyzes the various points of view.What appears to be the best course of action, based on the merits of the arguments that the articles present? Be sure to use arguments from each of your sources as you explore the issue. Paraphrase, summarize, and quote them accurately and be sure to cite them according to MLA style.

Open-ended writing assignments can be fun. They allow you to pursue your own topics of interest but they can also be frustrating because they require you to make decisions that your instructors make for you in specific assignments. Students often get lost and don’t know what to write about, or they spend a lot of time gathering research on vague topics that do not address their thesis.

The task becomes much easier if you already have a topic, one that is specific and focused and offers something to say. Coming up with one is the challenge but it is not as difficult as it sounds. Most of us know more—a lot more—than we think we know about the world around us and the subjects studied in schools colleges, and universities. At a minimum, people usually hold opinions about what is happening in our world, and, whether they realize it or not, they formed those opinions based on information and experience we gathered somewhere. If you find yourself stuck for a good research paper topic, ask yourself a few questions. You will find you have a lot more to say about those topics that you are involved with or that captured your interest than topics others might suggest, including your instructor.

Here are some things to consider when choosing a research paper topic:

  • Your hobbies and special interests.
  • Class discussions that caught your attention and aroused your interest.
  • Things you have read that caught your attention and aroused your interest.
  • True stories you have heard about on the radio or saw on TV that provoked a reaction from you and made you happy, sad, angry, or disgusted.
  • Things you have overheard that you would like to know more about.
  • Your hopes for the future.
  • Your worries about the future.
  • Things you dream about.
  • Issues you think someone should do something about.

Make a list of everything that comes to mind. You can use this list to begin brainstorming. You can even make games you play a starting point of your research paper: people playing Total War series can be interested in some period in history, like Ancient Rome or Napoleonic Wars, the fans of Fallout games may find it interesting to research technologies, nuclear weapons, or the physics of radioactive materials. Just write whatever comes to you.

When you have finished the list, pick the topic that most interests you—one that you actually want to write about and that you feel you would have a lot to say about. Open-ended writing assignments tend to be large, even massive, projects. They are often assigned weeks ahead of when they are due in order to give you plenty of time to find sources to support your arguments. See our collection of research paper topics, maybe you’ll find something interesting.

After you have picked a research paper topic, begin to focus it by writing down anything you can think about the topic of your choice.Things to consider as you narrow your topic:

  • Your opinion about it.
  • Interesting things you have heard about it.
  • Things you have read about it.
  • Others’ observations on it.
  • Any facts, assumptions, rumors,myths, and even the misrepresentations you have heard about it.

If you are assigned a research topic, you do not have a lot of flexibility. If the assignment requires you to write about a specific topic, simply write about it. Never stray from an assignment and head off in a direction all your own unless you first get approval from your professor. One of the best ways to ensure a bad grade is to write a research paper on a topic that in no way resembles the one you were assigned. No matter how perfect your research or how brilliant your style, you will most likely receive an F if you fail to produce what the assignment requests.

Instructors usually construct writing assignments with learning goals in mind. A student’s failure to correctly respond to an assignment means that he or she has not met those learning goals. Moreover, it raises a red flag to the instructor who may question whether the student understood the assignment or, worse, whether the student got lazy and desperate and found a well-written essay on the Internet and decided to submit it instead.

If you want to research a topic that was not assigned, ask your instructor if you can. Often, an instructor will be happy to let you follow your interests and conduct your own research, but always ask permission before you do.

Step 5: Developing a Working Thesis

A thesis statement is a claim that you intend to prove using sound, well-reasoned arguments drawn from careful research. It will be the central statement in your research paper when you actually sit down to write. Usually, your working thesis will not be the one that you actually present in your paper.

A working thesis simply aims to get you started on writing your research paper. You need it as an idea to guide you. Professors and writing instructors often refer to this process of developing an idea into a working thesis as “invention.” When you have finished this “invention” stage, you will find that you have the basis for a thesis statement and a good sense of direction in identifying the research you will need to support it.

The working thesis should be aimed at helping you narrow and manage your paper topic. A working thesis that is phrased in the form of a question can help guide your research. A good working thesis makes the job more manageable. Keep it focused and avoid making it too general. Theses that are too general often ramble and result in research papers that lose focus and therefore earn low grades.

Here are some examples of questions for working theses that are general and not well focused:

  • Should more money be spent on education?
  • How can the government balance the budget?
  • Why should we study art?
  • What should we do about global warming?
  • How can we eliminate poverty?
  • How should we respond to the energy crisis?

The following examples, however, are focused on specific issues that can be more easily researched:

  • Should more government-backed student loans be made available?
  • Should cuts in military spending be enacted before cutting domestic spending to balance the national budget?
  • Should the study of art history or the creative arts receive greater emphasis in America’s high schools?
  • Is wind energy a viable alternative to fossil fuels?
  • Will the extension of unemployment benefits improve life for the nation’s unemployed?
  • Will the sale of electric vehicles reduce American dependence on foreign oil?
Step 6: Writing a Proposal

Research proposals are only occasionally required in high school courses, sometimes in freshman-level college courses, and often in upper-level college business and science courses. However, even if your research paper assignment does not require you to submit a proposal, it is a good idea to develop one for your own purposes. A proposal helps you to organize ideas that can guide the research process. Research proposals allow you to start the thought process needed to focus your ideas. A good research proposal will identify the topic, present a working thesis, and offer a plan to prove it.

Think of your research proposal as an outline for how you will pursue your investigation and structure your research paper.

  • Your proposal should:
  • Identify your topic.
  • Present a working thesis.
  • Identify how you will conduct your research.
  • Present a hypothesis for what you expect to prove.

Having completed these 6 steps we can proceed to the main part in research paper writing –doing your research .

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