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What Does Ibid Mean In A Research Paper

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American Essay Research Paper What does it

American Essay Research Paper What does it

American Essay, Research Paper

What does it mean to be “American?” What makes it

“American?” And how does it make us “American?” American stands

for the beliefs, the music, as well as the people that come from

this great nation.

The beliefs of this great nation speak every language.

These beliefs stretch from the furthest reaches of Africa to the

city life of New York. These beliefs are pride, freedom, and

equality. American means to be proud. It means to stand up for

what you believe in and to fight for it wholeheartedly. American

also means to have freedom, freedoms to do what you wish, to

practice your own religious ceremonies, customs, and beliefs.

With these freedoms comes a responsibility, a responsibility to

be accountable for your actions. Equality is the basis of

American society. Before equality for all, there was slavery.

With this slavery came accounts of cruelty and disillusioned

violence. Without help from first hand accounts of slaves such

as Frederick Douglass and Olaudah Equiano, we would have never

emerged from this dark era in American history.

American music is the envy of nations around the world.

From Led Zeppelin to Snoop Doggy Dog, American music continues to

diversify and grow. American bands develop large masses of

followers in nations of all different ethnic backgrounds. From

Asia to Germany, American music continues to influence the music

styles of the rest of the world.

Proud American men and women joined the armed forces to

serve the country that they love and protect. These people show

what it means to be American. Just as the colonists fought the

British for Independence in April Morning, they risk their lives,

for something they believe in and cherish. These same people

also stand for exploration and discovery. The first white people

lead by Captain Smith, traveled to the newly discovered Americas,

to explore and colonize. They show the American strength of

character, determination, and will.

To be “American” is to be many things. It means different

things to different people, yet they all agree on the basic

American fundamentals. The beliefs, music, and people of a

country define the essence of that nation.

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What does it mean when a paper is copyrighted by an organization? Academia Stack Exchange

Not necessarily. Copyright prohibits you from presenting the work as yours under any circumstances. In addition, it prohibits you from publishing or recopying large segments of the work, without securing the permission of the owner of the copyright.

However, the existence of copyright does not exclude you from citing the work of others, nor mentioning what their key ideas are. Such use of copyright is covered by fair-use guidelines. Under these circumstances, though, you are still responsible for following the proper citation procedures of your university or the journal to which you are submitting the work under question. Note, however, that this is a tricky balance, and you should be careful to directly quote only the material you absolutely need to duplicate, as fair use is not an absolute guideline.

answered Mar 18 '12 at 21:53

The short answer: unless the document is marked "confidential" you can probably quote short passages verbatim and you can certainly make use of the ideas .

To expand on some of the other responses given here: In most jurisdictions, copyright allows the protection of the expression of an idea (e.g. as written down in a book or article) but not the idea itself. Legal protection of ideas is covered by patent law, which is much more restrictive than copyright, with much shorter periods of protection.

It's also worth knowing that phrases like "All rights reserved" are partly redundant these days in most countries – all works are copyrighted automatically, whether or not they include this phrase or similar. However, it's still useful to know who owns the copyright to a particular work.

What is referred to as "Fair Use" under US copyright law may not exist or may be very different in other jurisdictions. For example, in the United Kingdom there is a rather more restrictive version called "Fair Dealing ".

If you have some time to kill, Bound by Law is a useful comicbook-style introduction to copyright.

What does it mean to be a california - Research Paper by Izunigajr0

What does it mean to be a california Essay

5 February 2009

What does it mean to be a California?

In the late 1800’s people came to California for the fascination of gold, many people relocated along the San Francisco bay and all throughout the coast of California. Often the people that moved to California saw it as a new beginning, to start fresh, in a place in which was rich in culture and diversity and also filled with people in search for a new dream. The early settlers throughout California came from a hard past in search of a second chance.

Coming from England I always viewed California through the television, as a place where you could go to the beach, enjoy a nice warm day in the winter months and live next to the celebrities for Hollywood. From what I experience in the television the media portrayed the meaning of being a Californian glamour pretty person. While still living England the thought came to mind that it must be wonderful to live and be in California, it seem like a place where you could come and make you own life and just become someone new.

As the old saying goes be careful what you wish for, because you might get it. In this case my mother and father decided to move to America specifically California where I always wanted to live. Happy with news I told all my friends that I was moving to California and start over. As me and my family started to pack I thought of the early settlers that left pretty much everything to come to a place that few people have been inhabitant. Coming over from a new country the feeling bitterness came mind, I wondered if would belong in this new place. Every new environment has its goods and bad I just wishing to have more goods than bad.

After a long and tumultuous journey from England me and my family finally settled in our new home, right when we arrive at our new neighborhood I started to look around my block and it seemed as if all the house were the same and most.

What does Ibid Mean? (with pictures) - mobile wiseGEEK

wiseGEEK: What does "Ibid" Mean?

Ibid is a contraction of ibidem. a Latin word meaning “the same place.” This term is most commonly used for footnoting in scholarly texts, allowing the author to use it instead of citing a lengthy title. In legal texts, people may use “id,” a shortening of “idem,” a word that means “as mentioned previously.”

Essentially, this term is a fancy form of ditto marks. If, for example, a writer is referencing something like The Effects of Factory-Produced Emissions on the Greater Nile Watershed: An Environmental Study. that's a long title to have to refer to again and again. Instead, he or she can reference the title in a footnote. and then use “ibid” in future footnotes. If the writer moves to a new location in the text, he or she can alert your readers with “Ibid (page 23)” or a similar note, depending on what kind of citation format you are using.

When a new source is introduced, the process begins all over again. In other words, if the writer cites The Effects of Factory-Produced Emissions on the Greater Nile Watershed: An Environmental Study once and follows with four additional citations marked with “ibid” before moving on to Cultural Practices in the Southern Nile Floodplain. when the term is used after this source, it would refer to Cultural Practices in the Southern Nile Floodplain. not to the original text.

The use of “ibid” refers to both an author and a text. In some scholarly texts, people use “idem” to refer to an author alone if multiple works by the same author are being cited, as in “John Smith, Purple Elephants After Midnight (Saint Louis, University of Missouri Press, 1974), 367; idem, Under the Lily Trees (New York, St. Martin's Press, 1981), 284.” While replacing an author's name with “idem” might seem a bit lazy, some authors do have rather lengthy names and titles, and the term saves space and time.

Different scholarly disciplines have different rules about citations, and specific instructors, universities, and publications may have their own preference. For this reason, it is a good idea for a writer to consult a style manual before submitting material for publication, grading, or evaluation, to ensure that it meets the basic stylistic standards for the venue to which is it being submitted. While making small adjustments to footnoting practices may seem nitpicky to some, it ensures that material is standardized, and submissions that have not been properly edited may be rejected.

Article Discussion

5) It is not proper English to write, "Less than 2% of babies. " The proper adjective is "fewer". Amazing how few people under the age of 40 can actually speak and write well.

3) Well done (I'm a linguist).

2) When I learned, late in college, how to use "Ibid" in papers, I thought my life had become so much easier as far as essay writing had just become so much easier. Unfortunately, I only had to write papers with footnotes maybe twice more in my years at school, and since then I have not had another opportunity to use it. Maybe when I become a famous novelist and non-fiction essayist, I can; until then, at least I get to feel smart about knowing it.

1) Best definition, including variations of use. Thanks.

What Does Equal Mean Essay Research Paper

What Does Equal Mean Essay Research Paper

What Does Equal Mean Essay, Research Paper

What Does Equal Mean?

“All men are created equal,” as affirmed in the Constitution of the United States of America. This is a statement that no America claims to dispute but it has been disputed many times when it comes to the issue of affirmative action. Both sides of the debate have over examined moral and ethical issues concerning affirmative action while forgetting to scrutinize the system that has created the need for them. Affirmative action is more encompassing than just a cure all for racial discrimination, segregation and slavery (Eastland, 396). The opposition has failed to account for the positive features that affirmative action has fostered. Affirmative action has heightened our awareness of racism, sexism, equal opportunity in jobs and education and an overall increased quality of life as is guaranteed by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In theory, it should provide groups a greater equality of opportunity denied to Blacks by an unfair assessment of their capabilities and a historically flawed system. Until all individuals have the same motivation, the same physical attributes, the same language, the same skin color, the same sex, and the same talents there is a overwhelming need to continue affirmative action. Although affirmative action has caused tension in American society, it has also established assistance programs for better schooling and equal pay and opportunity to achieve regardless of race, gender, ethnicity, disability or age.

A cursory look at the history of this country tells the tale of oppression of the Blacks as an inferior race. Originally civil rights programs were enacted to help Black Americans become citizens with full rights guaranteed to all. The 13th Amendment made slavery illegal; the 14th Amendment guaranteed equal protection; the 15th Amendment forbade racial discrimination in regard to voting. Then in 1941, President Roosevelt signed an executive order outlawing segregation in hiring for defense related industries and in 1954 the decision of Brown vs. the Board of Education removed the legal impediments that had left an entire race impoverished and powerless (Lawrence,40). However, the phrase “affirmative action” was coined by President Johnson in 1965 when he signed executive order 11246, for federal contractors to “take affirmative action to ensure applicants were employed and treated fairly, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin” (Boyer,842). Again in 1967 the executive order was finally expanded to include affirmative action requirements for women as well. It wasn’t until President Ford was in office that affirmative action also extended to people with disabilities and Vietnam Veterans. It has been established that affirmative action is a set of public policies and initiatives designed to help eliminate past and present discrimination based on race, color, gender, ethnicity, disability or age.

Much of the opposition to affirmative action is framed on the so-called “reverse discrimination and unwarranted preferences” (Eastland, 397). In fact, according to the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission, less than 2% of the 91,000 discrimination cases pending are reverse discrimination suits (Kaminer, 4). It also states that ” anyone benefiting from affirmative action must have relevant and valid job or educational qualifications” (Kamer, 4). It is quite obvious to both sides of this issue that some kind of discrimination is in fact masquerading as affirmative action and that not every white person is advantaged and not every is disadvantaged. ‘Real’ affirmative action is needed to equalize opportunity, respect, and treatment to all groups and individuals who need justice. Without affirmative action minorities and women would have confronted social and legal exclusion simply because of who they are or what the represent. Another point mentioned in Eastland’s essay refers to the stigma affirmative action infers on the Black community (398). As far as racial categories goes, the Blacks have always carried a stigma of being a minority and therefore inferior, regardless of their character or qualifications. Affirmative action gives minorities the opportunity to defy the stereotype and stigma cast upon them by others. It appears that the stigma has more to do with continued racism than the effects of affirmative action.

Eastland alludes to the fact that “Ending affirmative action will create circumstances in which the individual will shine quite on their own merits” (399). But in fact ratifying Proposition 209 would end such programs as tutoring and mentoring for minorities and women, recruitment, outreach, counseling, financial aid, and job placement for many, thus making it difficult for these groups to have equal opportunities in education, employment, and contracting. Merits are honorable but first must be recognized as such in order for equality to take place. Should affirmative action require society to hire unqualified individuals? No, but affirmative action helps society re-evaluate how to assess those qualifications and how to measure merit.

The opposition does not even mention the injustices that whole industries have imposed on women and minorities, such as in many fire and police departments across the country where not one minority or women is present. Newspaper job listings use to be separated by gender and women still receive lower pay and fewer benefits than men filling the same position, not to mention the sexual harassment women have habitually been subjected to. Thanks to affirmative action, we have witnessed an increase in minority and women applicants to city, state and government jobs.

Lastly, there is no mention by Mr. Eastland of the discrimination against the disabled before they were included in affirmative action. In the past having a disability meant you where put in a home or asylum and denied an education, job and the ability to thrive. Until recently, disabled individuals could not even frequent public libraries, post offices, restaurants and many places of business, because they were not accessible to them. Now since the Disabilities Act 1990, handicapped people can access public places, attend school, be trained for a profession and feel positive about their contribution to society.

There are many people, Mr. Eastland, included who do not see affirmative action as a positive influence on society and would prefer it was eliminated. However, affirmative action has only been policy for the last thirty years, which is hardly long enough to solve a major societal problem. It is making steady strides in a definitive direction to eliminate equality by increasing educational possibilities to all minorities, increasing women in math and science, employing the handicapped and disabled so they can become independent, training minorities who would otherwise remain in menial jobs and providing contracts and positions to qualified individuals, especially women and minorities. In the end, a we need to continue a broad-based program of affirmative action ranging from the classroom to the workplace to the housing market to the government. Although I realize this is not a perfect plan and there may always be some legitimate discrimination concerns, affirmative action moves us away from a society that is inherently unfair to some groups and towards reform with equality and ‘justice for all’.

Academic Writing Skills. Teacher's Manual 3

Comprising three course books, this series is aimed at university students in all disciplines who require instruction in completing academic writing tasks. Through extensive use of examples, model texts, and practical activities, the course develops the essential skills needed to compose texts which meet the expectations of an academic reader. Academic Writing Skills 3 addresses higher-level academic features, such as understanding essay prompts, research, paragraph cohesion, logical connections, and effective sentence building. It is appropriate for students wishing to focus on specific essay types that require the use and integration of sources to complete academic writing tasks. Academic Writing Skills 3 Teacher's Manual has two parts: Part 1: Lesson plans for each part of each unit Part 2: The answer key to the exercises

Viewpoint is a two-level series for adults and young adults, taking learners from a high intermediate to advanced level of proficiency (CEFR: B2 - C1). The course is based on research into the Cambridge English Corpus, so it teaches English as it is really used. - Extensive corpus research ensures natural language is presented and practiced in authentic contexts. - Engaging writing tasks with explicit goals prepare learners to succeed in professional and academic writing. - Vocabulary-learning strategies encourage learner independence. - Tips to avoid common errors teach learners to use English accurately. The course is written by the same author team that produced the ground-breaking Touchstone series, a four-level series that takes students from beginner to intermediate levels (CEFR: A1 - B2).

Objective First 4 Edition Workbook with answers +CD-ROM

Objective First Fourth Edition is official preparation for the revised Cambridge English: First exam, also known as First Certificate in English (FCE). It has been fully updated in line with the revised exam. The Workbook with answers with Audio CD provides opportunities for further practice of new language and skills either at home or in the classroom. It includes an exam-style listening exercise every other unit. Key features of the Objective First course: Vocabulary sections informed by the English Vocabulary Profile, part of the English Profile project, ensure that students learn the words and meanings they require at B2 level. A student's CD-ROM provides extra practice of language and topics covered in the Student's Book, and includes wordlists which may be used either with or without definitions. 24 units, each focusing on a different stimulating topic, make preparing for Cambridge English: First a manageable task. Complete Cambridge English: First practice tests are available online. Regular Exam Folders provide systematic exam preparation and practice, covering each paper in detail. Writing Folders every two units give practice in writing skills and exam technique for the range of skills needed for Paper 2. Corpus Spots use examples from the Cambridge Learner Corpus to highlight common learner errors and train students to avoid them.