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Analyse Meaning In Essay Format

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Semasiology Linguistics and Grammatical Meaning Essay - 2425 Words

Semasiology: Linguistics and Grammatical Meaning

Semasiology
By definition Lexicology deals with words, word-forming morphemes (derivational affixes) and word-groups or phrases. All these linguistic units may be said to have meaning of some kind: they are all significant and therefore must be investigated both as to form and meaning. The branch of lexicology that is devoted to the study of meaning is known as Semasiology. Semasiology from Greek word sēmasia (“signification”) + logos (“account”).The branch of lexicology which is so called semantics semiotics, semology, the philosophical and scientific study of meaning. It is difficult to formulate a distinct definition for each of these terms because their use largely overlaps in the literature despite individual preferences. Semantics is a relatively new field of study, and its originators, often working independently of one another, felt the need to coin a new name for the new discipline; hence the variety of terms denoting the same subject. The word semantics has ultimately prevailed as a name for the doctrine of meaning, in particular, of linguistic meaning. Semiotics is still used, however, to denote a broader field: the study of sign- using behaviour in general. Meaning is one of the most controversial terms in the theory of language. At first sight the understanding of this term seems to present no difficulty at all — it is freely used in teaching, interpreting and translation. The scientific definition of meaning however just as the definition of some other basic linguistic terms, such as word. sentence, etc. has been the issue of interminable discussions. Since there is no universally accepted definition of meaning 4 we shall confine ourselves to a brief survey of the problem as it is viewed in modern linguistics both in our country and elsewhere.

It is more or less universally recognised that word-meaning is not homogeneous but is made up of various components the combination and the interrelation of which determine to a great extent the inner facet of the word. These components are usually described as types of meaning. The two main types of meaning that are readily observed are the grammatical and the lexical meanings to be found in words and word-forms.

Grammatical meaning We notice, e.g. that word-forms, such as girls, winters, tables, etc. though denoting widely different objects of reality have something in common. This common element is the grammatical meaning of plurality which can be found in all of them. Thus grammatical meaning may be defined ,as the component of meaning recurrent in identical sets of individual forms of different words, as, e.g. the tense meaning in the word-forms of verbs (asked, thought, walked, etc.) or the case meaning in the word-forms of various nouns (girl’s, boy’s, night’s, etc.). In a broad sense it may be argued that linguists who make a distinction between lexical and grammatical meaning are, in fact, making a distinction between the functional (linguistic) meaning which operates at various levels as the interrelation of various linguistic units and referential (conceptual) meaning as the interrelation of linguistic units and referents (or concepts). In modern linguistic science it is commonly held that some elements of grammatical meaning can be identified by the position of the linguistic unit in relation to other linguistic units, i.e. by its distribution. Word-forms speaks, reads, writes have one and the same grammatical meaning as they can all be found in identical distribution, e.g. only after the pronouns he, she, it and before adverbs like well, badly, to-day, etc. It follows that a certain component of the meaning of a word is described when you identify it as a part of speech, since different parts of speech are distributionally different (cf. my work and I work). Comparing word-forms of one and the same word we observe that besides.

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study of meaning in language. We know that language is used to express meanings which can be understood by others. But meanings exist in our minds and we can express what is in our minds through the spoken and written forms of language (as well as through gestures, action etc.). The sound patterns of language are studied at the level of phonology and the organisation of words and sentences is studied at the level of morphology and syntax. These are in turn organised in such a way that we can convey meaningful messages or receive and understand messages. ‘How is language organised in order to be meaningful?’ This is the question we ask and attempt to answer at the level of semantics. Semantics is that level of linguistic analysis where meaning is analysed. It is the most abstract level of linguistic analysis, since we cannot see or observe meaning as we can observe and record sounds. Meaning is related very closely to the human capacity to think logically and to understand. So when we try to analyse meaning . we are trying to analyse our own capacity to think and understand, our own ability to create meaning . Semantics concerns itself with ‘giving a systematic account of the nature of meaning ’ (Leech). Difficulties in the Study of Meaning The problem of ‘meaning ’ is quite difficult, it.

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SEMANTICS A short story of semantics Why study semantics? Semantics (as the study of meaning ) is central to the study of communication; and as communication becomes more and more a crucial factor in social organization, the need to understand it becomes more and more pressing. Semantics is also at the centre of human mind – thought processes, cognition, conceptualization – all these are strongly connected to the way in which we classify and convey our experience of the world through language. Semantics can be defined as a branch of linguistics ; it is an area of study parallel to, and interacting with syntax and phonology. While syntax and phonology study the structure of expressive possibilities in language, semantics studies the meaning that can be expressed. Nearly all linguists have accepted a linguistic model in which semantics is at one end and phonetics at the other, with grammar somewhere in the middle. However, until recently, semantics has been the ‘Cinderella’ of linguistics . a branch that had been abandoned to philosophers and anthropologists. But in the past20 –25 years there has been a swing away from the view that semantics is a messy, unstructured intellectual no-man’s-land on the fringes of linguistics . and little by little it has acquired a central position in linguistic studies. The concentration on semantics has come not only from linguists, but from.

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TREND The science of human language Language is the subject matter of linguistics What is language? SET /REPERTOIRE TOOL MEANS OF INTERACTION KINESICS FLEXIBLE Creative Rule-governed Arbitrary Discrete To acquire Fully-fledged Sound /Phonetics /Phonology Word/Morphology Sentence/Syntax Meaning /Semantics Tacitly Gender Breach Finite set of rules / infinite Linguist To be under oath NEOLOGISM GURU SCHOOLS OF LINGUISTICS School /Trend /Approach /Frame of Thinking Principles / Underpinnings The History of Linguistics is split into. a.Before a science b.After a science Before it was established as a science ( a human science)Linguistics was in fact ' Traditional Grammar'. Traditional Grammar: Prescriptive Traditional Grammarians Manuals of Rules of Prescription THE GREEKS The 5th century BC The dominance of Philosophy All academic disciplines were considered as part pf Philosophy. Grammar. too. The focus was on ' written language'. Grammar= The Art of Writing. Language. for the Greeks. is a set of regular patterns. Grammar is the systematic way of studying these patterns. SANSKRIT ; particles The Greeks were the first to use the notion 'Parts of Speech'. Plato. Nouns and Verbs. Aristotle: Conjunction; Tense Thrax. Adverbs. Participles, Pronouns. Prepositions. VERBAL Let's eat. Grandma. Parts of.

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Definition A root is the portion of a word that • is common to a set of derived or inflected forms, if any, when all affixes are removed • is not further analyzable into meaningful elements, being morphologically simple, and • carries the principle portion of meaning of the words in which it functions. Discussion If a root does not occur by itself in a meaningful way in a language, it is referred to as a bound morpheme. Examples (English) • Disestablish • Establishment • Establishments In linguistics . a stem is a part of a word. The term is used with slightly different meanings . In one usage, a stem is a form to which affixes can be attached.Thus, in this usage, the English word friendships contains the stem friend, to which the derivational suffix -ship is attached to form a new stem friendship, to which the inflectional suffix -s is attached. In a variant of this usage, the root of the word (in the example, friend) is not counted as a stem. In a slightly different usage, which is adopted in the remainder of this article, a word has a single stem, namely the part of the word that is common to all its inflected variants.Thus, in this usage, all derivational affixes are part of the stem. For example, the stem of friendships is friendship, to which the inflectional suffix -s is attached. Stems may be roots, e.g. run, or they may be morphologically complex, as in compound words (cf. the compound nouns meat.

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The Essay Format Guide

Engrade › Wikis › The Essay Format Guide The Essay Format Guide The Introductory Paragraph

ESSAY QUESTION: _______________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SENTENCE 1: HOOK (catch your reader’s attention with some clever angle or insight. Make it intelligent but flashy and interesting)
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SENTENCE 2: BACKGROUND INFO (include title and author of the book and some general context the reader will need to understand the topic)
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SENTENCE 3: MORE SPECIFIC (move from the general info to the more specific target of your essay…you might want to include some fact or statistic or nugget of wisdom about the story here)
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SENTENCE 4: MORE SPECIFIC (even more specifically now, tee up your next sentence (the thesis).
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SENTENCE 5: THESIS (your main, one-sentence argument that answers the topic and also gives quick indications about what the main ideas will be for each body paragraph below)
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ESSAY QUESTION: _______________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Introduction Paragraph SENTENCE 1: HOOK (catch your reader’s attention with some clever angle or insight. Make it intelligent but flashy and interesting) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 2: BACKGROUND INFO (include title and author of the book and some general context the reader will need to understand the topic) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 3: MORE SPECIFIC (move from the general info to the more specific target of your essay…you might want to include some fact or statistic or nugget of wisdom about the story here) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 4: MORE SPECIFIC (even more specifically now, tee up your next sentence (the thesis). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 5: THESIS (your main, one-sentence argument that answers the topic and also gives quick indications about what the main ideas will be for each body paragraph below) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Introductory Paragraph

Body Paragraph 1

SENTENCE 1: TOPIC SENTENCE (introduces main idea for this paragraph only and also ties back to enhance the thesis): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SENTENCE 2: CONCRETE DETAIL 1 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page):
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SENTENCE 3: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
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SENTENCE 4: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
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SENTENCE 4A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary)
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SENTENCE 5: CONCRETE DETAIL 2 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page):
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SENTENCE 6: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
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SENTENCE 7: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
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SENTENCE 7A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary)
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SENTENCE 8: TRANSITION (smoothly wrap up this paragraph and blend into the next idea…hint at what’s coming in next paragraph):
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SENTENCE 1: TOPIC SENTENCE (introduces main idea for this paragraph only and also ties back to enhance the thesis): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 2: CONCRETE DETAIL 1 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 3: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 4: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 4A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 5: CONCRETE DETAIL 2 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 6: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 7: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 7A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 8: TRANSITION (smoothly wrap up this paragraph and blend into the next idea…hint at what’s coming in next paragraph): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Body Paragraph 1

Body Paragraph 2

SENTENCE 1: TOPIC SENTENCE (introduces main idea for this paragraph only and also ties back to enhance the thesis): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SENTENCE 2: CONCRETE DETAIL 1 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page):
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SENTENCE 3: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
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SENTENCE 4: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
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SENTENCE 4A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary)
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SENTENCE 5: CONCRETE DETAIL 2 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page):
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SENTENCE 6: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
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SENTENCE 7: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
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SENTENCE 7A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary)
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SENTENCE 8: TRANSITION (smoothly wrap up this paragraph and blend into the next idea…hint at what’s coming in next paragraph):
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SENTENCE 1: TOPIC SENTENCE (introduces main idea for this paragraph only and also ties back to enhance the thesis): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 2: CONCRETE DETAIL 1 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 3: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 4: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 4A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 5: CONCRETE DETAIL 2 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 6: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 7: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 7A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 8: TRANSITION (smoothly wrap up this paragraph and blend into the next idea…hint at what’s coming in next paragraph): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Body Paragraph 2

Body Paragraph 3

SENTENCE 1: TOPIC SENTENCE (introduces main idea for this paragraph only and also ties back to enhance the thesis): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SENTENCE 2: CONCRETE DETAIL 1 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page):
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SENTENCE 3: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
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SENTENCE 4: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
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SENTENCE 4A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary)
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SENTENCE 5: CONCRETE DETAIL 2 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page):
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SENTENCE 6: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SENTENCE 7: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here):
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SENTENCE 7A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary)
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SENTENCE 8: TRANSITION (smoothly wrap up this paragraph and blend into the next idea…hint at what’s coming in next paragraph):
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

SENTENCE 1: TOPIC SENTENCE (introduces main idea for this paragraph only and also ties back to enhance the thesis): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 2: CONCRETE DETAIL 1 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 3: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 4: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 4A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 5: CONCRETE DETAIL 2 (piece of support, proof, evidence, quote directly from the text…don’t forget to cite the page): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 6: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 7: COMMENTARY (now analyze or explain why the CD above is important, what is means, how it explains and proves your thesis…avoid summarizing the plot here): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 7A: OPTIONAL (more commentary if necessary) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 8: TRANSITION (smoothly wrap up this paragraph and blend into the next idea…hint at what’s coming in next paragraph): ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Body Paragraph 3

Conclusion Paragraph

SENTENCE 1: REPHRASE THESIS (using different words, capture the main idea of your essay…allow your individual style to dictate the new word choice!)
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SENTENCE 2: SUMMARY 1 (restate the “big picture” of body paragraph 1)
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SENTENCE 3: SUMMARY 2 (restate the “big picture” of body paragraph 2)
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SENTENCE 4: SUMMARY 3 (restate the “big picture” of body paragraph 3)
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SENTENCE 5: CLINCHER (leaves reader with some final thought that answers the question “so what?”…“so why did I read this essay?”…try an interesting new quote…or maybe you want to leave the reader with some question to ponder …try connecting the essay topic to real life, etc…be creative!)
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SENTENCE 1: REPHRASE THESIS (using different words, capture the main idea of your essay…allow your individual style to dictate the new word choice!) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 2: SUMMARY 1 (restate the “big picture” of body paragraph 1) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 3: SUMMARY 2 (restate the “big picture” of body paragraph 2) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 4: SUMMARY 3 (restate the “big picture” of body paragraph 3) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SENTENCE 5: CLINCHER (leaves reader with some final thought that answers the question “so what?”…“so why did I read this essay?”…try an interesting new quote…or maybe you want to leave the reader with some question to ponder …try connecting the essay topic to real life, etc…be creative!) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________