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Double tap to zoom outComparison of Techniques for Measuring Research Coverage of Scientific Papers: A Case Study
Aravind Sesagiri Raamkumar
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LinkedIn Corporation © 2017
November 10, 2014
What qualities or characteristics make a research a successful research. every step of the research study is important. Negligence in any step can affect the complete study and not just that part. There are certain characteristics that are necessary in every research, these characteristics make the research a valid and generalizable study. Having just information and data is not enough for good research paper, You must know qualities of good research paper to present it in proper way.
Research is all about deep investigation to unearth the truth
Research is a laborious and hard work in reality and it requires great patience and control. Research paper requires rigorousness to maintain its quality. There can be several factors that can effect the quality and the outcome of the research, the researcher should have a control over these factors. Some factors will effect the research positively while other factors can negatively effect the research. Negative factors can decrease the validity of the research, so these factors should be kept in control by the researcher.
For example in a study conducted on the effect of humidity on the tensile strength of viscose fabrics the researcher has to test the performance of the fabric under great humidity, less humidity and under standard humidity. The humidity will be kept in control by the researcher to get valid and generalizable results. In another study the researcher has to study the effect of socioeconomic class on the performance of children in school, the researcher will see that no other factors are influencing the performance of the children. There can be many other factors like parenting style, peer group influence or siblings rivalry that is effecting the performance of the child but the researcher should have a strict control over these extraneous factors.Controlled
Another very important and basic characteristic of a research paper is that it should have to be controlled or measured. Everything that you add in a research paper is preplanned and cannot happen just by chance. The first step in conducting a research is choosing a research topic, from that step till the end, writing the research paper the researcher should keep control over the research study. He should measure the consequences of each step that he has planned to take prior to taking it.
A researcher is conducting a research on the effect of permanent press finishes on hte durability characteristics of fabrics. In this research the researcher should accurately measure the effectof permanent press finishes and there should not be any other finishes on the fabric.
Accuracy is important because without accuracy the research paper cannot be valid and generalizable. In every step of the research the researcher has to check the accuracy. When the researcher is reviewing literature he should write down the references along with the literature review so that when writing those reviews he can accurately write the reference of each review. While testing the hypothesis the researcher should write down the results of the tests accurately so that there is no error. In research the researcher should leave no chances of error by himself. He should ensure the accuracy of his research to 100 percent.
Suppose a researcher is conducting a research on the impact of physical disabilities in children on the peer group acceptance. The researcher is using interview as a tool of data collection the researcher should record the responses of the interviewees accurately and he should not invest bias in any way.
A research paper should have to be free of ambiguities and it should have great clarity. Clarity is one of the main essences of research and without clarity the research paper is useless.
A researcher should be cautious about the clarity of the research. The researcher should first develop a clear research question or research problem and once the research problem is clear and understandable the researcher can conduct the research without hurdles. Suppose the researcher makes the research problem that how media influences child development, in this research question the researcher needs to clarify which development, social, mental, physical or motor. The researcher cannot undertake the study unless he brings clarity to the research problem.
As a researcher you do not need to add a lot to the research paper to make it unique or interesting rather you should add only relevant and original content. The readers will be able to understand a concise research more easily, there should not be unnecessary details in the research.
The researcher can write details and lots of explanations but these details and explanations should be of value to the research the researcher should not add unnecessary details in the research. The research paper is more concise in nature than dissertations and thesis.
Validity is the most important concern in writing and conducting a research. The actual strength of the research paper is its validity. A valid research is applicable to various situations in general or it can be applied to any specific situation, people or society.
The constructs you are using, to measure attitudes, behavior or other phenomenon, whether they really measure what you want to measure or they measure something else.Verifiable
The data the researcher adds in the research paper should have to be verifiable and provable. The researcher should be able to demonstrate the research paper and there should not be any loopholes in the information.
The researcher should know from where the data has been taken and how it has been analyzed. Suppose another researcher is trying to repeat similar study to make it more valid he should be able to get information from the previous research, if previous research will be invalid or unverifiable the new research will also get effected. Research is an ongoing process and not only research helps in the general development of the humanity but it more specifically is used by the new researchers to generate more information.Sequential
The research should have to be conducted and written in a logical manner. The researcher should follow a sequence so that he cannot get troubled in the end as to how to compile this research. It is better if you start writing the research paper as you are conducting it.
You cannot write the analysis before writing about the data collection and data processing. You have to follow a procedure and sequence.
Preciseness means that the research paper should have completeness and it should contain detailed investigation of the research topic.
The research should contain exact answers to the research questions. It is not possible that the researcher formulates a specific research question about women injustice in underdeveloped countries but answers the question about more general topic like gender biases.
The research paper should contain only original content and copy work should be completely avoided. You can add literature from other sources in various forms like in the form of literature review but you should never compromise on the originality of the research paper.
Suppose a researcher is conducting a research on the impact of financial resources in family on the personality development of children. The researcher has decided to take black negroes population and he cannot get the required number of sample, in this case, he cannot use other people’s findings to justify his research. He has to use truly original data that has been collected from truly representative sample.
Coherence is necessary because it makes the research paper a complete and one unit. Every part of the research paper should be so linked that it makes a whole.
The researcher should stick to one theme and should not wander from one topic to another.Academic style of writing
Writing a research paper is the last step of the research and writing requires rigorousness. The researcher should follow an academic style of writing and any ostentatiousness in writing should be avoided. The language of the research paper should have to be simple and easy to understand.
A research paper, thesis or dissertation should have decency and there should have to be least ornamentation. The purpose of the research is to bring into light facts and figures. The researcher should avoid the use of double baralled sentences, complex language or unnecessary details. The research should have to be concise and precise in nature.Generalizable
The research paper findings should be generalizable and the findings should be applicable to the society in one way or other. Sometimes the purpose of the research is to develop new research tools, techniques or data collection instruments. Such research may not be useful for the society in general but in the long run researchers will be bale to use these tools or techniques to conduct more researches.
The researcher is conducting a study on the life of transgender class in the society. He has to collect data from different people who belong to this class, the researcher should understand that he cannot generalize his findings untill he has selected an unbiased and truly representative sample. He cannot select a sample from one area of the population rather he should select sample from every area of the population to make it representative of the whole population.
Although young computer scientists are told that they need to produce research results, no exact requirements are specified. Instead, researchers are usually given vague encouragement to achieve something ``significant'' or have ``high quality publications'' without any precise explanation of what it means.
To a junior researcher, it may seem that there is a conspiracy among senior people -- that they have some secret way of evaluating research but are unwilling to reveal it. After all, one is likely to hear a vague statement such as, ``research simply means accumulating knowledge'' or the less clever: ``It's difficult to define, but I know good research when I see it.''
The reason a junior staff member cannot obtain a more precise explanation of how to measure research is that no single explanation exists. Instead, there are a variety of measures -- each group tends to use a measure that maximizes their goals. Indeed, someone wants to make a point in favor or against a person, they choose a measure that helps.
If you are a junior researcher, this guide is for you. It lists measures, explains each, and gives the actual facts. Knowing the list will help you impress others when you talk about research and will help you avoid pitfalls.Journal Paper Approach
(preferred by journal publishers)
Rate Of Publication Approach
Measure: N, the total number of papers published.
Reasoning: A researcher who generates a new idea writes a paper which is then reviewed by peers and eventually published in an archive journal. Thus, number of papers is a measure of productivity.
Actual Facts: Publication standards vary widely, with some conferences and journals accepting all submissions, and others accepting only a few. More important, almost all research is useless; no one really reads the papers. (One study estimates that on the average, a given research paper is read by .5 people, with the number being skewed upward by the few papers that are read by thousands).
Warnings: Although they claim otherwise, tenure committees use this measure because it's much easier to count papers than assess their merit. Note that people with gray hair are especially fond of this measure because they win by citing it -- their personal value of N is much higher than a young researcher's. When using this measure, don't brag about co-authors because credit is reduced when a paper has multiple authors.
(preferred by young researchers)
Measure: N/T, the ratio of total papers published to the time in which they were published.
Reasoning: Paper count is insufficient because it doesn't measure productivity -- if a researcher publishes 10 papers in one year, they are extremely productive, but if they publish 10 papers in a lifetime, they are extremely unproductive.
Actual Facts: A researcher's publication rate varies over time; the real peaks occur just before an individual is considered for promotion, and the rate usually tapers off dramatically in the years before retirement. Thus, as a researcher ages, they stop talking about N/T, and revert to measuring N. Warning: Tenure committees are wary of anyone who cites this measure. Besides, be realistic -- a bunch of gray-haired, old guys are not going to reward you for a high rate when they themselves are facing a rate that has fallen off.
(preferred by accreditation agencies)
Measure: W, the sum of the weights assigned to published papers.
Reasoning: Because some papers represent more intellectual achievement than others, each paper should assigned a weight proportional to its quality. Instead of counting papers, the sum of the weights should be used. For example, non-research papers can be assigned a zero or near-zero weight.
Actual Facts: Instead of assessing each individual paper, people who use this method merely assign each journal a weight according to its prestige, and then use the value for any paper that appears in the journal. Of course, the prestige of a journal varies over time, and there is no such thing as a journal in which all papers are of uniform quality, but that doesn't seem to matter. The beauty of the measure is that given a set of publication, one can choose weights to make the list look good or bad.
Warning: When discussing this measure, remember that the choice of weights is arbitrary, and that although an individual may present evidence to justify their choice, in the end everyone seems to favor a set of weight that gives their personal publication list a high ranking.
(preferred by government granting agencies)
Measure: G, the total amount of taxpayer money distributed for research.
Reasoning: Given a long enough time, a random set of researchers banging away on keyboards will eventually write a paper about something that will benefit the country. To stimulate more researchers to produce more papers, the government collects proposals, and gives money to the ``best''. Obviously, giving more money will, therefore, stimulate more papers, which will increase the benefit to the country.
Actual Facts: The grant system is closer to a lottery than a national benefit. To ensure that everything is ``equal'', government agencies often follow a political agenda, meaning that the probability of obtaining a grant can depend on such factors as the size of one's institution, its geographic location, race, and gender. In the extreme case, an applicant will receive a letter informing them that they have been selected for a grant, but need to revise their proposal because the scientific content is unacceptable.
Warning: Don't take it personally one way or the other -- being awarded a government grant does not necessarily mean you have a great idea, nor does the denial of a government grant mean the idea is worthless.
(preferred by department heads)
Measure: D, the total dollars of grant funds acquired by a researcher.
Reasoning: Researchers who are awarded grants for the research must have good ideas (or the granting agency would not have awarded the money). Thus, more money must mean more ideas.
Actual Facts: Department Heads are only interested in impressing Deans and Department Heads at other institutions -- they love to brag about the total dollars of grant funds brought in by all members of their department. Unfortunately, the amount of grants funds that can be collected depends more on the amount available than the quality of proposed research. Governments hand out more when their coffers are overflowing (or when doing so has some political advantage); industry gives out much more when profits are high (or when they can get a tax write off).
Warning: Again, don't read too much into grants -- no matter what anyone says, the amount of money you receive (little or much) is not always proportional to the quality of your ideas.
(preferred by university administrators)
Measure: O, the total overhead dollars generated.
Reasoning: When a researcher is awarded N dollars of government grant money, 1/3 of it is designated as ``indirect cost'' or ``overhead'' that pays for such things as office space, electricity, and accountants that keep track of expenditures on the grant. Overhead is a measure of how much the researcher has brought to the institution.
Actual Facts: Office space is needed with or without a grant, and large research institutions already have accounting procedures and systems in place. Thus, indirect costs are merely a way for the institution to rake off money from research grants.
Warning: Equipment grants are exempt from indirect cost, so don't brag to an administrator about a big equipment grant -- they will not be impressed. Also, remember that indirect cost is generated when money is spent, not when it is awarded. Thus, if you spend grant money in January instead of December, the overhead will count toward the new year and not the old.
(preferred by industrial research labs)
Measure: P, the profit generated by patents or products that result from the research.
Reasoning: An industry creates a research lab to benefit the business units, not simply as a way to spend excessive profits. Thus, in the industrial world, it makes sense to measure research by how it helps the bottom line.
Actual Facts: Almost no research has any real effect on the company profits. Even if a research idea eventually makes its way into a product, the revenue generated depends much more on marketing than on the quality of the underlying idea (there is even some evidence of an inverse relationship between product quality and profit).
Warning: Revenue is a terrible measure of research quality because stupid or trivial ideas often generate the most profit; don't assume an idea has any scientific merit just because it makes money, and don't assume otherwise if it does not.
(preferred by the handful of researchers who actually achieve something)
Measure: I/R, Ratio of the impact of the work to the amount of resources used to generate it.
Reasoning: The ``impact'' of research on the field provides a good overall measure of value. One might ask questions such as: Did the work affect others? or Is the work cited and used? However, to make comparison fair, one cannot compare research performed by a team of twenty four researchers working at a large industrial lab using equipment that costs ten million dollars to the research performed by an individual working on weekends with no staff. Thus, to make a fair assessment, compute the ratio of impact to resources.
Actual Facts: Both impact and resources are difficult to measure. More important, it is unfortunate that ``big science'' often appears to have more impact simply because it generates more publicity.
Warning: Note that although this measure is the most fair, it is unpopular. Administrators dislike the measure because the amount of funding -- the item they wish to emphasize -- appears in the denominator, meaning that a researcher who achieves a given impact with fewer grant funds receives a higher evaluation under this measure! Most researchers dislike the measure as well because it emphasizes output over input -- it is much easier to obtain funding than to produce results that have any real impact.
If your research doesn't look good under the measure in use, maybe it's time to change the measure!Translations:
Meaning of Research, The Research Process and Characteristics
1. To understand the nature and meaning of research.
2. To know continuous search after new knowledge of a fundamental nature. 3. To apply the goals of research in the development of technically trained people of various levels to man science agencies, industrial firms and allied organizations. 4. To recognize the need for information
• accurate information is the basis for intelligent decision making. • helps when formulating appropriate research questions, such as “What is the topic?” • can define focus and timeline – “Do I have enough time to find the appropriate information on my topic?” 5. Save time by searching effectively.
6. Create better quality research paper.
When man faces problems, he sooner or later seeks solution. Research is born out of these problems and of man’s determination to solve them. Man’s progress over the years has depended on research. As a matter of fact, our times have been described as a period of fabulous accomplishment. Today virtually every field of life has been touched by the research process.
Who are Researchers?
Persons who has an inquisitive mind, one who is not satisfied until he achieve his goal.
Explore and gain an understanding of human behavior and social life and thereby gain a greater control over them.
WHAT IS RESEARCH?
“It is a process of scientific thinking that leads to the discovery or establishments of new knowledge or truth. It is not a subjective expression of ideas or opinions.” (Isidro and Malolos, 1979)
Characteristics of Scientific Thinking:
1. It is based on facts.
2. It starts from complex problems.
3. It is free from personal bias or opinion.
4. It uses objective measurements.
“The careful unbiased investigation of a problem, based in so far as possible upon demonstrable facts and involving refined distinctions, interpretations and usually some generalizations.” (Good, 1956)
“it is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.” (kerlinger, 1973)
“It is systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing specialized tools, instruments and procedures in order to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem than would be possible under ordinary means.” (Crawford, 1946)
“It is a continuous discovery and exploration of the unknown.” (Good and Scates, 1972)
Steps or Sequence of Problem Solving as proposed by Good and Scates
1. Formulation and development of the problem for investigation, and survey of the related literature.
2. Selection and use of one or more appropriate methods for gathering evidence, together with analysis and interpretation of data.
3. Reporting and implementation of the findings.
THE RESEARCH PROCESS
It is a systematic, a carefully planned activity which is done in an orderly manner. It is a step by step process in completing a course assignment which is a requirement in a research paper.
Research which literally means to “Search again” that is one looks for previous findings of a problem and gathers his own data on the same problem to confirm, reject, modify or add new findings.
Steps in Research Process
1. Identification of the Problem
2. Reading for concepts, theories and previous findings
3. Formulation of the Theoretical Background
4. Formulation of Hypotheses
5. Identification of threats to validity of data
6. Scientification of threats to validity of data.
7. Construction of Research
8. Construction and Validation of Instruments
9. Data Collection and Analysis
13. Another Problem
Purpose of Writing the Research Report
The aims purpose of the research.
Experimental research Experimental research is commonly used in sciences such as sociology and psychology, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine etc. Experimental research tests a hypothesis and establishes causation by using independent and dependent variables in a controlled environment. KEY POINTS Experiments are generally the most precise studies and have the most conclusive power. They are particularly effective in supporting hypotheses about cause and effect relationships. However, since the conditions are artificial, they may not apply to everyday situations. A well designed experiment has features that control random variables to make sure that the effect measured is caused by the independent variable being manipulated. These features include random assignment, use of a control group, and use of a single or double-blind design. An experimenter decides how to manipulate the independent variable, but only measures the dependent variable. In a good experiment, only the independent variable will affect the dependent variable. TERMS random assignment Random assignment of subjects to experimental and control conditions is a process used to evenly distribute the individual qualities of the participants across the conditions. dependent variable The aspect or subject of an experiment that is influenced by the manipulated aspect; an outcome measured to see the effectiveness of the treatment independent variable The.
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CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN Meaning – Need – Features – Steps In Formulating a Research Design – Basic Principles of Experimental Designs Once the Research problem identified, researcher has to plan how to go about the / conduct research in most efficient and successful manner. Good planning gives the researcher direction for the successful completion of the project The plan of study is called research design It the blue print of the proposed study MEANING “It is a logical and systematic planning and it helps directing a piece of research ” R.D is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting observation A plan of what data to gather, from whom, how and when to collect the data, and how to analyze the data obtained A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly. 1. What is the study about 2. Why is study being made 3. What type of data are needed 4. What are the sources of data 5. What periods pf time will the study include ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD RESEARCH DESIGN 1. It should minimize the biasness and maximize the reliability 2. Lower the experimental error better design / a design which yield nominal information a. It facilitates obtaining required.
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Research . Statistics, and Psychology As with any discipline or teaching, the information known today did not just appear from nowhere or suddenly. Instead, the knowledge and understanding of arithmetic, science, and geography, among all other subjects, has been acquired from a long history of events and has involved many phenomenal thinkers and discoveries. The formal discipline of psychology is no exception to this rule as the field has a vast history with an overabundance of statistics as well as research . To gain a more complete sense of and appreciation for the role of research and statistics in the field of psychology, one must explain the role of statistics in research . compare and contrast the characteristics of primary and secondary data, and define research and the scientific method. Establishing a definition for both research and scientific method is the first element essential to fully comprehending how research and statistics impact the formal discipline of psychology. Research . something that everyone at this level of higher learning has done a tremendous amount of, may hold a slightly different meaning for different individuals. This may be because what constitutes research is partially left to the individual researcher’s subjective point of view. So, because of this, to avoid any uncertainty, one may turn to the dictionary for.
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collect, analyze and interpret data. Modern statistical methods involve the design and analysis of experiments and surveys, the quantification of biological, social and scientific phenomenon and the application of statistical principles to understand more about the world around us. Since data are used in most areas of human endeavor, the theory and methods of modern statistics have been applied to a wide variety of fields. Exciting new areas are opening up, due to developments in areas such as biotechnology, survey research and computing. The Department of Statistics is involved in research . teaching, and statistical consulting for the entire University. Because of its activities, the collaborative work with other disciplines give graduate students a wide range of opportunities to work with individuals in these disciplines and to learn practical applications of statistical principles from direct experience. Value of statistics in Research . Approaches to Research . Many of the researches are done in one of two ways: 1. Two or more groups are compared such as in varietal tests where the characteristics of two or more varieties are compared and fertilizer experiments using different forms or types of fertilizer, different levels. 2. Variables within one group are related. Examples: Relating length of panicles and weight of individual grains determining relationship between feed consumption and gain in weight.
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descriptive statistics and from this, inferential statistics. To research differences and relationships of variables, inferential statistics compares more than one sample, allowing correlations between variables that are relevant to a particular research . In inferential statistics there could be error in sampling or measurement, as the same with descriptive statistics. Like descriptive statistics, inferential statistics uses a spread of scores of population with scores retrieved from the sample is the sample distribution, standard error is the standard deviation of the spread of scores, and the likely range the confidence interval. Inferential statistics and descriptive statistics work together in determining whether an interaction effect has occurred in an experiment. The test for an interaction effect involves determining whether the effect of one independent variable differs across the levels of the other independent variable. 2. What are the similarities between case studies and small-N research designs? What are the differences? When should case studies and small-N research designs be used? The analysis of a single individual, event, or group is a case study. There are different types of cases, which are intrinsic, instrumental, and collective. When doing this type of research one must go out into the field to observe or interview in a natural setting. In the field, those collecting data develop.
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This paper is a review on survey method methodology in MIS and it also provide the assessment for MIS research using survey. The first part of the paper defines survey research and discuss its application. Difference between survey and survey research In general, a survey is a means of gathering information about one or many certain characteristics, or opinion of a population. A survey research is conducted to advance scientific knowledge ⇒ for research purpose Characteristics: Produce quantitative results. The subjects may be individuals, groups, organization, or also may be projects, applications… The main way of collecting information is by asking people structured and predefined questions The sample is large enough to allow extensive statistical analyses Application In order to best understand the application of survey method, we compare survey research with 2 other dominant methods in MIS: case studies and lab experiments. Case studies involve the examination of a phenomenon in its natural setting. The researcher has no control over the phenomenon, but can control the scope and time of the examination May not have clearly dependent and independent variables Most appropriate when the researcher is interested in the relation between context and the phenomenon of interest. Lab experiments involve examination of a phenomenon in a controlled.
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Quasi-Experimental Research vs. True Experiments Unit 9 November 18, 2012 Introduction I will compare and contrast quasi-experimental research and true experiments by addressing their weaknesses and strengths. Throughout my project I will give a detailed description of my experimental method used, as well as a thorough justification of why I selected this method as well as my sampling plan. I will also identify the target population, any ethical issues and my expected results. I will discuss the internal validity, external validity, limitations to my conclusion as well as my recommendations for future research . True Experiments True experiments are considered the most accurate form of experimental research and are used to prove or disprove a hypothesis, or theory. True experiments are excellent for showing a cause-and-effect relationship. There is a random assignment of subjects or groups to treatments in true experiments with only one variable manipulated and tested. Random assignment controls for extraneous variables. The difference between participants or groups is based purely on chance. The strength of true experiments is causal control and strong internal validity. They are high on internal validity and variable being measured is clear. Randomization is the number one contributor to making an experiment.
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The main purpose of a research proposal is to show that the problem you propose to investigate is significant enough to warrant the investigation, the method you plan to use is suitable and feasible, and the results are likely to prove fruitful and will make an original contribution. In short, what you are answering is 'will it work?' A provisional way of presenting all the parameters of research in logical order is known as proposal-writing stage. Irrespective of some other motives such as financial grants, sponsorships, academic proposal, writing a proposal in itself is a useful practice. Research proposal is a brief (up to two pages) overview of your researchpaper . giving the reader sufficient information about the work you've done, about the way you did it and the value of this work. As any other research work, research proposal has its own format. Its peculiarities are as follows: • a language simple enough for a non-specialist to understand the major points of the paper • absence of references, unusual terms, scientific jargon • a proposed researched question should be determined by one field of science • proposed researched question should be as specific as possible • research proposal should contain the following parts: Components of a Research Proposal I. Statement of the Problem The problem.
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